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General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.You should use a clear font that is highly readable.Include arunning head“) at the top of every page 25 Oct 2016 - Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) with 1″ margins on all sides. You should use Please note: While the APA manual provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore .Include arunning head“) at the top of every page.
To create apage header/running head, insert page numbers flush right.
Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left using all capital letters Essay USA How To Start A Essay About Yourself with highest nbsp.Then type “TITLE OF YOUR PAPER” in the header flush left using all capital letters.Therunning head is a shortened version of your paper’s title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.Major Paper Sections title of the paper, theauthor’s name, and theinstitutional affiliation.Include the page header (described above) flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page.
Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this: Running head: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers haveincorrectexamples of Running heads on pages after the title page.
Thislink will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA’s 6th edition style guide.Type yourtitle in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page.APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.Your title may take up one or two lines.All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.
Beneath the title, type theauthor’s name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name.Beneath the author’s name, type theinstitutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.Image Caption: APA Title Page Abstract Begin a new page.
Your abstract page should already include thepage header (described above).On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (no bold, formatting, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research.) Your abstract should contain at least your research topic, research questions, participants, methods, results, data analysis, and conclusions.
You may also include possible implications of your research and future work you see connected with your findings.Your abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced.Your abstract should be between 150 and 250 words.You may also want to list keywords from your paper in your abstract.To do this, indent as you would if you were starting a new paragraph, type Keywords: (italicized), and then list your keywords.
Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.Image Caption: APA Abstract Page Please see ourSample APA Paper resource to see an example of an APA paper.You may also visit ourAdditional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.How to Cite the Purdue OWL in APA Individual Resources Contributors’ names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.Retrieved from Web address for OWL resource Angeli, E.Retrieved from /owl/resource/560/01/ Contributors:Joshua M.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed.
, 2 In-Text Citations: The Basics Reference citations in text are covered on pages 169-179 of the Publication Manual.What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research, for example, Jones (1998)found or Jones (1998)APA citation basics When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation.This means that the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.If you are referring to an idea from another work butNOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication and not the page number in your in-text reference.
All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.In-text citation capitalization, quotes, and italics/underlining Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D.If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change.
Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs:Writing New Media, Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized:Writing new media.
Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: “Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock’sVertigo.” Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums:The Closing of the American Mind;The Wizard of Oz;Friends.Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: “Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds”; “The One Where Chandler Can’t Cry.” Short quotations If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by “p.
Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author’s last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.According to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p.Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p.
199); what implications does this have for teachers? If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.She stated, “Students often had difficulty using APA style” (Jones, 1998, p.199), but she did not offer an explanation as to why.Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words, or longer, in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks.Start the quotation on a new line, indented 1/2 inch from the left margin, i.
, in the same place you would begin a new paragraph.Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation 1/2 inch from the new margin.The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
Jones’s (1998) study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed topurchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help.199) Summary or paraphrase If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number (although it is not required.) According to Jones (1998), APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners.
APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (Jones, 1998, p.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 In-Text Citations: Author/Authors APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system.There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers.Citing an Author or Authors A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.
Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.Research by Wegener and Petty (1994) supports… (Wegener & Petty, 1994) A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source. Use the word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses.(Kernis, Cornell, Sun, Berry, & Harlow, 1993) In subsequent citations, only use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.” in the signal phrase or in parentheses.
, 1993) et should not be followed by a period.Six or More Authors: Use the first author’s name followed by et al., 2001) Unknown Author: If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses.Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.
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A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers (“Using APA,” 2001).
Note: In the rare case the “Anonymous” is used for the author, treat it as the author’s name (Anonymous, 2001).
In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author The entire paper should be double-spaced, apart from the following exceptions: block quotes, footnotes, endnotes, bibliographies, reference lists, table titles, and figure captions You can use our Pagination Tutorial for Turabian to help format your paper. This will present some basics about writing the body of your paper..In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.According to the American Psychological Association (2000),… If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations Although this sounds obvious, it is a skill which most students need to develop as none of us are born with the natural ability to write an essay. None of us are born with the ability to write an essay that will address a given topic effectively and adequately support an argument with evidence, either. Do not worry as these skills .According to the American Psychological Association (2000),… If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations.First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving MADD , 2000) Second citation: (MADD, 2000) Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon Although this sounds obvious, it is a skill which most students need to develop as none of us are born with the natural ability to write an essay. None of us are born with the ability to write an essay that will address a given topic effectively and adequately support an argument with evidence, either. Do not worry as these skills .First citation: (Mothers Against Drunk Driving MADD , 2000) Second citation: (MADD, 2000) Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.Johnson, 1998) Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters (a, b, c) with the year to order the entries in the reference list.Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation.Research by Berndt (1981a) illustrated that… Introductions, Prefaces, Forewords, and Afterwords: When citing an Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterwords in-text, cite the appropriate author and year as usual.(Funk & Kolln, 1992) Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication.
Do not include personal communication in the reference list.Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase.List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses.Johnson argued that…(as cited in Smith, 2003, p.Note: When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above.Also, try to locate the original material and cite the original source.Electronic Sources If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style.Kenneth (2000) explained… Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation “n.Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring (“Tutoring and APA,” n.Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited.
When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation “para.” followed by the paragraph number (Hall, 2001, para.If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading.According to Smith (1997), … (Mind over Matter section, para.Note: Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.
Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Footnotes and Endnotes APA does not recommend the use of footnotes and endnotes because they are often expensive for publishers to reproduce.However, if explanatory notes still prove necessary to your document, APA details the use of two types of footnotes: content and copyright.
When using either type of footnote, insert a number formatted in superscript following almost any punctuation mark.Footnote numbers should not follow dashes ( — ), and if they appear in a sentence in parentheses, the footnote number should be inserted within the parentheses.Scientists examined—over several years 1—the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.2 (These have now been transferred to the Chauan Museum.
Footnotes may also appear on the final page of your document (usually this is after the References page).Center the word “Footnotes” at the top of the page.Indent five spaces on the first line of each footnote.Then, follow normal paragraph spacing rules.1 While the method of examination for the wooly-wooly yak provides important insights to this research, this document does not focus on this particular species.Content Notes Content Notes provide supplemental information to your readers.When providing Content Notes, be brief and focus on only one subject.Try to limit your comments to one small paragraph.Content Notes can also point readers to information that is available in more detail elsewhere.
1 See Blackmur (1995), especially chapters 3 and 4, for an insightful analysis of this extraordinary animal.Copyright Permission Notes If you quote more than 500 words of published material or think you may be in violation of “Fair Use” copyright laws, you must get the formal permission of the author(s).All other sources simply appear in the reference list.Follow the same formatting rules as with Content Notes for noting copyright permissions.Then attach a copy of the permission letter to the document.
If you are reproducing a graphic, chart, or table, from some other source, you must provide a special note at the bottom of the item that includes copyright information.You should also submit written permission along with your work.Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck.Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.For more information, please consult thePublication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6 th ed., 2 Reference List: Basic Rules Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper.It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper.Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page “References” centered at the top of the page (do NOT bold, underline, or use quotation marks for the title).All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.Basic Rules All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin.Authors’ names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors.
If the work has more than seven authors, list the first six authors and then use ellipses after the sixth author’s name.After the ellipses, list the last author’s name of the work.Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title.For example:General Format MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing.MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages.Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material.Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental uncredited use of source material by other writers.
If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition).Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (3rd edition).The MLA Handbook is available in most writing centers and reference libraries; it is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site.See the Additional Resources section of this handout for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA style.
Paper Format The preparation of papers and manuscripts in MLA style is covered in chapter four of the MLA Handbook, and chapter four of the MLA Style Manual.
Below are some basic guidelines for formatting a paper in MLA style.General Guidelines Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.
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Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one from another.Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks (unless otherwise instructed by your instructor).Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides How to Write an Essay Learn How to Write Essays UK Essays.
Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides.
Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin.MLA recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar five times 2 Dec 2017 - How To Start A Essay About Yourself. Professional essay and resume writing services offering expertise in writing CVs, resumes and cover letters customized by the industry and position level. Click here for expert CV help from the absolute best, top rated CV writers and a personalized writing process!, Best .MLA recommends that you use the Tab key as opposed to pushing the Space Bar five times.Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin.(Note: Your instructor may ask that you omit the number on your first page.Always follow your instructor’s guidelines psychology.
Always follow your instructor’s guidelines.
) Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis.If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page.Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted).Formatting the First Page of Your Paper Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested.In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor’s name, the course, and the date.
Again, be sure to use double-spaced text.Double space again and center the title.Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters.Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Weariness in “After Apple Picking” Double space between the title and the first line of the text.Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.
), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin.(Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit last name/page number header on your first page.) Here is a sample of the first page of a paper in MLA style: Image Caption: The First Page of an MLA Paper Section Headings Writers sometimes use Section Headings to improve a document’s readability.These sections may include individual chapters or other named parts of a book or essay.
Essays MLA recommends that when you divide an essay into sections that you number those sections with an arabic number and a period followed by a space and the section name.Early Writings Books MLA does not have a prescribed system of headings for books (for more information on headings, please see page 146 in the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition).If you are only using one level of headings, meaning that all of the sections are distinct and parallel and have no additional sections that fit within them, MLA recommends that these sections resemble one another grammatically.For instance, if your headings are typically short phrases, make all of the headings short phrases (and not, for example, full sentences).It should, however, be consistent throughout the document.If you employ multiple levels of headings (some of your sections have sections within sections), you may want to provide a key of your chosen level headings and their formatting to your instructor or editor.Sample Section Headings The following sample headings are meant to be used only as a reference.You may employ whatever system of formatting that works best for you so long as it remains consistent throughout the document.Numbered: Level 2 Heading: italics, flush left Level 3 Heading: centered, bold Level 4 Heading: centered, italics Level 5 Heading: underlined, flush left MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style are covered in chapter six of the MLA Handbook and in chapter seven of the MLA Style Manual.
Both books provide extensive examples, so it’s a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question.Basic In-Text Citation Rules In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation.This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends (1.) upon the source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page.Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.
More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of the corresponding entry in the Works Cited List.
In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation.This means that the author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page.The author’s name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence.For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263).Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263).
Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263).Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth.If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William.In-text Citations for Print Sources with Known Author For Print sources like books, magazines, scholarly journal articles, and newspapers, provide a signal word or phrase (usually the author’s last name) and a page number.If you provide the signal word/phrase in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the parenthetical citation.
Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals” (3).Human beings have been described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3).These examples must correspond to an entry that begins with Burke, which will be the first thing that appears on the left-hand margin of an entry in the Works Cited: Burke, Kenneth.Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method.In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name.Place the title in quotation marks if it’s a short work (e.articles) or italicize it if it’s a longer work (e.
plays, books, television shows, entire websites) and provide a page number.We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change .In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited.Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page.The Works Cited entry appears as follows: “The Impact of Global Warming in North America.We’ll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it’s important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.
Author-Page Citation for Classic and Literary Works with Multiple Editions Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels’s The Communist Manifesto.In such cases, give the page number of your edition (making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course) followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume (vol.For example: Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles (79; ch.Citing Authors with Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken.For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors’ first initials (or even the authors’ full name if different authors share initials) in your citation.For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children (R.Miller 12), others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration (A.
Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source with three or fewer authors, list the authors’ last names in the text or in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States (76).The authors state “Tighter gun control in the United States erodes Second Amendment rights” (Smith, Yang, and Moore 76).For a source with more than three authors, use the work’s bibliographic information as a guide for your citation.Provide the first author’s last name followed by et al.counter Smith, Yang, and Moore’s argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4).Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore’s argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (Jones et al.Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore’s argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws (4).
Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children (“Too Soon” 38), though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child’s second and third year (“Hand-Eye Development” 17).Additionally, if the author’s name is not mentioned in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author’s name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers: Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be “too easy” (Elkins, “Visual Studies” 63).Citing Multivolume Works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number(s).
(If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses.
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as Quintilian wrote in Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you’re using (and underline or italicize the title), as each version varies in its translation, followed by book (do not italicize or underline), chapter and verse.
For example: Ezekiel saw “what seemed to be four living creatures,” each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle ( New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek.If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation 25 Oct 2016 - Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one .If future references employ the same edition of the Bible you’re using, list only the book, chapter, and verse in the parenthetical citation.
Citing Indirect Sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source.
An indirect source is a source cited in another source 24 Nov 2017 - All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. And the How to write a standard essay in English following a common essay outline structure also known as the hamburger essay. Argument Throughout your academic career, you will often be asked to write essays..An indirect source is a source cited in another source.in” to indicate the source you actually consulted.For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as “social service centers, and they don’t do that well” (qtd.Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source biology.Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.Citing Non-Print or Sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments.While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work (reference the OWL’s Evaluating Sources of Information resource), some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research.When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited.Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require any sort of parenthetical citation at all.
For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.author name, article name, website name, film name).You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function.Unless you must list the website name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text.
Only provide partial URLs such as when the name of the site includes, for example, a domain name, like or Miscellaneous Non-Print Sources Fitzcarraldo stars Herzog’s long-time film partner, Klaus Kinski.During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film.During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention.In the two examples above “Herzog” from the first entry and “Yates” from the second lead the reader to the first item each citation’s respective entry on the Works Cited page: Herzog, Werner, dir.” Gaps Addressed: Future Work in Rhetoric and Composition, CCCC, Palmer House Hilton, 2002.Electronic Sources Fitzcarraldo is “…a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism” (Garcia, “Herzog: a Life”).The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year.
Its “MLA Formatting and Style Guide” is one of the most popular resources (Stolley et al.In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited.Thus, the writer includes both the author’s last name and the article title in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader to the appropriate entry on the Works Cited page (see below).” in the parenthetical citation gives the reader an author name followed by the abbreviation “et al.,” meaning, “and others,” for the article “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.” Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Garcia, Elizabeth.The Film School of New Hampshire, 2 May 2002.as has been discussed elsewhere (Burke 3; Dewey 21).When a Citation Is Not Needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources.
You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge.Remember, this is a rhetorical choice, based on audience.If you’re writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, they’ll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge.MLA Formatting Quotations When you directly quote the works of others in your paper, you will format quotations differently depending on their length.Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper.
Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced.Short Quotations To indicate short quotations (fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks.Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page.Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation.Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example: According to some, dreams express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184), though others disagree.According to Foulkes’s study, dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (184).Is it possible that dreams may express “profound aspects of personality” (Foulkes 184)? Mark breaks in short quotations of verse with a slash, /, at the end of each line of verse: (a space should precede and follow the slash) Cullen concludes, “Of all the things that happened there / That’s all I remember” (11-12).Long Quotations For quotations that extend to more than four lines of verse or prose: place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks.Start the quotation on a new line, with the entire quote indented one inch from the left margin; maintain double-spacing.
Only indent the first line of the quotation by a half inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs.Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks.(You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay.
) For example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow.
By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr.Earnshaw’s door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber.Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house.(Bronte 78) When citing long sections of poetry, keep formatting as close to the original as possible: In his poem “My Papa’s Waltz,” Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father: The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy.We Romped until the pans Slid from the kitchen shelf; My mother’s countenance Could not unfrown itself.
(quoted in Shrodes, Finestone, Shugrue 202) When citing two or more paragraphs, use block quotation format, even if the passage from the paragraphs is less than four lines.Indent the first line of each quoted paragraph an extra quarter inch: In “American Origins of the Writing-across-the-Curriculum Movement,” David Russell argues: Writing has been an issue in American secondary and higher education since papers and examinations came into wide use in the 1870s, eventually driving out formal recitation and oral examination.From its birth in the late nineteenth century, progressive education has wrestled with the conflict within industrail society between pressure to increase specialization of knowledge and of professional work (upholding disciplinary standards) and pressure to integrate more fully an ever-widerning number of citizes into intellectually meaningful activity within mass society (promoting social equity).(3) Adding or Omitting Words in Quotations If you add a word or words in a quotation, you should put brackets around the words to indicate that they are not part of the original text.
Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: “some individuals who retell urban legends make a point of learning every rumor or tale” (78).If you omit a word or words from a quotation, you should indicate the deleted word or words by using ellipsis marks, which are three periods ( .For example: In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that “some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale .and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs” (78).Please note that brackets are not needed around ellipses unless adding brackets would clarify your use of ellipses.
When omitting words from poetry quotations, use a standard three-period ellipses; however, when omitting one or more full lines of poetry, space several periods to about the length of a complete line in the poem: These beauteous forms, Through a long absence, have not been to me As is a landscape to a blind man’s eye: .Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart; And passing even into my purer mind, With tranquil restoration.(22-24, 28-30) MLA Footnotes and Endnotes Because long explanatory notes can be distracting to readers, most academic style guidelines (including MLA and APA) recommend limited use of footnotes/endnotes; however, certain publishers encourage or require note references in lieu of parenthetical references.
MLA discourages extensive use of explanatory or digressive notes.
MLA style does, however, allow you to use endnotes or footnotes for bibliographic notes, which refer to other publications your readers may consult: 1.See Blackmur, especially chapters three and four, for an insightful analysis of this trend.On the problems related to repressed memory recovery, see Wollens 120-35; for a contrasting view, see Pyle 43; Johnson, Hull, Snyder 21-35; Krieg 78-91.Several other studies point to this same conclusion.See Johnson and Hull 45-79, Kather 23-31, Krieg 50-57.Or, you can also use footnotes/endnotes for occasional explanatory notes (also known as content notes), which refers to brief additional information that might be too digressive for the main text: 4.In a 1998 interview, she reiterated this point even more strongly: “I am an artist, not a politician!” (Weller 124).Numbering Endnotes and Footnotes in the Document Body Endnotes and footnotes in MLA format are indicated in-text by superscript Arabic numbers after the punctuation of the phrase or clause to which the note refers: Some have argued that such an investigation would be fruitless.
6 Scholars have argued for years that this claim has no basis,7 so we would do well to ignore it.Note that when a long dash appears in the text, the footnote/endnote number appears before the dash: For years, scholars have failed to address this point8—a fact that suggests their cowardice more than their carelessness.Do not use asterisks (*), angle brackets (>), or other symbols for note references.
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The list of endnotes and footnotes (either of which, for papers submitted for publication, should be listed on a separate page, as indicated below) should correspond to the note references in the text.Formatting Endnotes and Footnotes Endnotes Page MLA recommends that all notes be listed on a separate page entitled Notes (centered, no formatting).
) The Notes page should appear before the Works Cited page Turabian Formatting Quick Guide Academic Success Center nbsp.) The Notes page should appear before the Works Cited page.
This is especially important for papers being submitted for publication.The notes themselves should be listed by consecutive arabic numbers that correspond to the notation in the text MLA Format Papers Step by step Tips for Writing Research Essays nbsp.The notes themselves should be listed by consecutive arabic numbers that correspond to the notation in the text.Each endnote is indented five spaces; subsequent lines are flush with the left margin MLA Format Papers Step by step Tips for Writing Research Essays nbsp.Each endnote is indented five spaces; subsequent lines are flush with the left margin.Place a period and a space after each endnote number.Provide the appropriate note after the space.Footnotes (below the text body) In the case that you need to format footnotes on the same page as the main text, begin footnotes four lines (two double-spaced lines) below the main text.Footnotes are single-space with a hanging indent.
(Each footnote is indented five spaces; subsequent lines are flush with the left margin.) Place a period and a space after each footnote number.Provide the appropriate note after the space.For more information on using endnotes and footnotes, consult “Using Notes with Parenthetical Documentation” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (sec.5, 230-32), or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition (sec.MLA Works Cited Page: Basic Format According to MLA style, you must have a Works Cited page at the end of your research paper.All entries in the Works Cited page must correspond to the works cited in your main text.
Basic Rules Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper.It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper.Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page.Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries.Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent.
List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed.If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50.Additional Basic Rules New to MLA 2009 For every entry, you must determine the Medium of Publication.Most entries will likely be listed as Print or Web sources, but other possibilities may include Film, CD-ROM, or DVD.Writers are no longer required to provide URLs for Web entries.
However, if your instructor or publisher insists on them, include them in angle brackets after the entry and end with a period.For long URLs, break lines only at slashes.If you’re citing an article or a publication that was originally issued in print form but that you retrieved from an online database, you should type the online database name in italics.You do not need to provide subscription information in addition to the database name.
Capitalization and Punctuation Capitalize each word in the titles of articles, books, etc, but do not capitalize articles (the, an), prepositions, or conjunctions unless one is the first word of the title or subtitle: Gone with the Wind, The Art of War, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.
New to MLA 2009: Use italics (instead of underlining) for titles of larger works (books, magazines) and quotation marks for titles of shorter works (poems, articles) Listing Author Names Entries are listed alphabetically by the author’s last name (or, for entire edited collections, editor names).Author names are written last name first; middle names or middle initials follow the first name: Burke, Kenneth Wallace, David Foster Do not list titles (Dr.A book listing an author named “John Bigbrain, PhD” appears simply as “Bigbrain, John”; do, however, include suffixes like “Jr.would be cited as “King, Martin Luther, Jr.
,” with the suffix following the first or middle name and a comma.More than One Work by an Author If you have cited more than one work by a particular author, order the entries alphabetically by title, and use three hyphens in place of the author’s name for every entry after the first: Burke, Kenneth.… When an author or collection editor appears both as the sole author of a text and as the first author of a group, list solo-author entries first: Heller, Steven, ed.
Design Literacy: Understanding Graphic Design.Work with No Known Author Alphabetize works with no known author by their title; use a shortened version of the title in the parenthetical citations in your paper.In this case, Boring Postcards USA has no known author: Baudrillard, Jean.
MLA Works Cited Page: Books When you are gathering book sources, be sure to make note of the following bibliographic items: author name(s), book title, publication date, publisher, place of publication.The medium of publication for all “hard copy” books is Print.For more information, consult “Citing Nonperiodical Print Publications” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (sec.5, 148-81), or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition (sec.
Basic Format The author’s name or a book with a single author’s name appears in last name, first name format.The basic form for a book citation is: Lastname, Firstname.Book with More Than One Author The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format.The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring.If there are more than three authors, you may choose to list only the first author followed by the phrase et al.(Latin for “and others”) in place of the subsequent authors’ names, or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page.(Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition.or Wysocki, Anne Frances, Johndan Johnson-Eilola, Cynthia L.
Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition.Two or More Books by the Same Author List works alphabetically by title.
(Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only.For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.Book by a Corporate Author or Organization A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page.List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.Book with No Author List by title of the book.Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name.
For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan.Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author, provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses.
You may also use a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number.For more information see In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations: The Basics, which you can link to at the bottom of this page.A Translated Book Cite as you would any other book.”—the abbreviation for translated by—and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).
Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason.Republished Book Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition.New editions are typically revisions of the original work.For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one, insert the original publication date before the publication information.different from the first or other editions of the book), see An Edition of a Book below.An Edition of a Book There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor).
A Subsequent Edition Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title.Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students.A Work Prepared by an Editor Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title.Collection of Essays) To cite the entire anthology or collection, list by editor(s) followed by a comma and “ed.
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” or, for multiple editors, “eds” (for edited by).If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common), see A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below.
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A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book.The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows: Lastname, First name.“Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers.” A Tutor’s Guide: Helping Writers One to One elrubius.es/thesis.php.” A Tutor’s Guide: Helping Writers One to One.“Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The ‘Real World.
Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay.You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text.To do so, include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor’s name as below: Rose, Shirley K.The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher.Then, for each individual essay from the collection, list the author’s name in last name, first name format, the title of the essay, the editor’s last name, and the page range: L’Eplattenier, Barbara.“Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs.
“‘Seeing’ the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping.Poem or Short Story Examples: Burns, Robert.” The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories.If the specific literary work is part of the an author’s own collection (all of the works have the same author), then there will be no editor to reference: Whitman, Walt.” Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories.Encyclopedias, Dictionaries) For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information.Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item.” A Multivolume Work When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work’s title, or after the work’s editor or translator.
When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work.Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s).(See Citing Multivolume Works on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page, which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page.If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author(s) of the piece you are citing.
Then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks.If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work, then write the full name of the principal work’s author after the word “By.” For example, if you were to cite Hugh Dalziel Duncan’s introduction of Kenneth Burke’s book Permanence and Change, you would write the entry as follows: Duncan, Hugh Dalziel.
Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose.Other Print/Book Sources The Bible Give the name of the specific edition you are using, any editor(s) associated with it, followed by the publication information.Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse(s).
(See Citing the Bible on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page, which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page.A Government Publication Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified.Otherwise, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author.For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed.US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office, which MLA abbreviates as GPO.
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs.A Pamphlet Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author.
Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors (commissions, committees, or other groups that does not provide individual group member names).If the pamphlet you are citing has no author, cite as directed below.If your pamphlet has an author or a corporate author, put the name of the author (last name, first name format) or corporate author in the place where the author name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.(See also Books by a Corporate Author or Organization above.) Women’s Health: Problems of the Digestive System.
Washington: American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs.Dissertations and Master’s Theses Dissertations and master’s theses may be used as sources whether published or not.Cite the work as you would a book, but include the designation Diss.(or MA/MS thesis) followed by the degree-granting school and the year the degree was awarded.If the dissertation is published, italicize the title and include the publication date.
You may also include the University Microfilms International (UMI) order number if you choose: Bishop, Karen Lynn.Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign.Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership.If the work is not published, put the title in quotation marks and end with the date the degree was awarded: Graban, Tarez Samra.“Towards a Feminine Ironic: Understanding Irony in the Oppositional Discourse of Women from the Early Modern and Modern Periods.
“Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory.
MLA Works Cited: Citing Periodicals Periodicals (e.magazines, newspapers, and scholarly journals) that appear in print require the same medium of publication designator—Print—as books, but the MLA Style method for citing these materials and the items required for these entries are quite different from MLA book citations.For more information on citing periodicals, consult “Citing Periodical Print Publications” in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (sec.4, 136-48), or the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition (sec.Article in a Magazine Cite by listing the article’s author, putting the title of the article in quotations marks, and italicizing the periodical title.The basic format is as follows: Author(s).
” Title of Periodical Day Month Year: pages.Article in a Newspaper Cite a newspaper article as you would a magazine article, but note the different pagination in a newspaper.If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition following the date (e.
“New Health Center Targets County’s Uninsured Patients.
If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication, include the city name and state in brackets after the title of the newspaper.“Presidential Hopefuls Get Final Crack at Core of S.
” Post and Courier Charleston, SC 29 Apr.” Purdue Exponent West Lafayette, IN 5 Dec.A Review To cite a review, include the title of the review (if available), then the abbreviation “Rev.of” for Review of and provide the title of the work (in italics for books, plays, and films; in quotation marks for articles, poems, and short stories).Finally, provide performance and/or publication information.of Performance Title, by Author/Director/Artist.Title of Periodical day month year: page.“Life in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living.of Sport, Rhetoric, and Gender: Historical Perspectives and Media Representations, ed.An Editorial & Letter to the Editor Cite as you would any article in a periodical, but include the designators “Editorial” or “Letter” to identify the type of work it is.Anonymous Articles Cite the article title first, and finish the citation as you would any other for that kind of periodical.
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“Business: Global Warming’s Boom Town; Tourism in Greenland.“Aging; Women Expect to Care for Aging Parents but Seldom Prepare.” Women’s Health Weekly 10 May 2007: 18 MLA Writing Style Guide The Learning Center.” Women’s Health Weekly 10 May 2007: 18.
An Article in a Scholarly Journal In previous years, MLA required that researchers determine whether or not a scholarly journal employed continuous pagination (page numbers began at page one in the first issue of the years and page numbers took up where they left off in subsequent ones) or non-continuous pagination (page numbers begin at page one in every subsequent issue) in order to determine whether or not to include issue numbers in bibliographic entries.The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers 7th edition (2009) eliminates this step.
Always provide issue numbers, when available Best website to buy a custom paper natural resources original Business British ASA 3 hours.Always provide issue numbers, when available.“Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu.“The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo’s White Noise.” An Article in a Special Issue of a Scholarly Journal When an article appears in a special issue of a journal, cite the name of the special issue in the entry’s title space, in italics, and end with a period.
issue of” and include the name of the journal, also in italics, followed by the rest of the information required for a standard scholarly journal citation.Web entries should follow a similar format.“Politics in the Novels of Graham Greene.
issue of Journal of Contemporary History 2.“Eve’s Apple, or Women’s Narrative Bytes.MLA lists electronic sources as Web Publications.
Thus, when including the medium of publication for electronic sources, list the medium as Web.It is always a good idea to maintain personal copies of electronic information, when possible.It is good practice to print or save Web pages or, better, using a program like Adobe Acrobat, to keep your own copies for future reference.Most Web browsers will include URL/electronic address information when you print, which makes later reference easy.Important Note on the Use of URLs in MLA MLA no longer requires the use of URLs in MLA citations.Because Web addresses are not static (i., they change often) and because documents sometimes appear in multiple places on the Web (e., on multiple databases), MLA explains that most readers can find electronic sources via title or author searches in Internet Search Engines.For instructors or editors that still wish to require the use of URLs, MLA suggests that the URL appear in angle brackets after the date of access.Web Atomic and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 13 Sept.Abbreviations Commonly Used with Electronic Sources If publishing information is unavailable for entries that require publication information such as publisher (or sponsor) names and publishing dates, MLA requires the use of special abbreviations to indicate that this information is not available.to indicate that neither a publisher nor a sponsor name has been provided.
when the Web page does not provide a publication date.When an entry requires that you provide a page but no pages are provided in the source (as in the case of an online-only scholarly journal or a work that appears in an online-only anthology), use the abbreviation n.
Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources (Including Online Databases) Here are some common features you should try and find before citing electronic sources in MLA style.Not every Web page will provide all of the following information.However, collect as much of the following information as possible both for your citations and for your research notes: Author and/or editor names (if available) Article name in quotation marks (if applicable) Title of the Website, project, or book in italics.(Remember that some Print publications have Web publications with slightly different names.They may, for example, include the additional information or otherwise modified information, like domain names e.
) Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates, volumes, or issue numbers.
Publisher information, including the publisher name and publishing date.Take note of any page numbers (if available).URL (if required, or for your own personal reference).Citing an Entire Web Site It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later.
Be sure to include the complete address for the site.Editor, author, or compiler name (if available).
Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available).The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008.Course or Department Websites Give the instructor name.Then list the title of the course (or the school catalog designation for the course) in italics.Give appropriate department and school names as well, following the course title.A Page on a Web Site For an individual page on a Web site, list the author or alias if known, followed by the information covered above for entire Web sites.if no publisher name is available and n.An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph) Provide the artist’s name, the work of art italicized, the date of creation, the institution and city where the work is housed.Follow this initial entry with the name of the Website in italics, the medium of publication, and the date of access.If the work is cited on the web only, then provide the name of the artist, the title of the work, the medium of the work, and then follow the citation format for a website.If the work is posted via a username, use that username for the author.An Article in a Web Magazine Provide the author name, article name in quotation marks, title of the Web magazine in italics, publisher name, publication date, medium of publication, and the date of access.if no publisher name is available and n.
” A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites.
An Article in an Online Scholarly Journal For all online scholarly journals, provide the author(s) name(s), the name of the article in quotation marks, the title of the publication in italics, all volume and issue numbers, and the year of publication.Article in an Online-only Scholarly Journal MLA requires a page range for articles that appear in Scholarly Journals.If the journal you are citing appears exclusively in an online format (i.there is no corresponding print publication) that does not make use of page numbers, use the abbreviation n.
to denote that there is no pagination for the publication.“Research in Youth Culture and Policy: Current Conditions and Future Directions.
” Social Work and Society: The International Online-Only Journal 6.
Article in an Online Scholarly Journal That Also Appears in Print Cite articles in online scholarly journals that also appear in print as you would a scholarly journal in print, including the page range of the article.
Provide the medium of publication that you used (in this case, Web) and the date of access.“Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.An Article from an Online Database (or Other Electronic Subscription Service) Cite articles from online databases (e.LexisNexis, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect) and other subscription services just as you would print sources.Since these articles usually come from periodicals, be sure to consult the appropriate sections of the Works Cited: Periodicals page, which you can access via its link at the bottom of this page.In addition to this information, provide the title of the database italicized, the medium of publication, and the date of access.Note: Previous editions of the MLA Style Manual required information about the subscribing institution (name and location).This information is no longer required by MLA.
“Love and Courtship in Mid-Twentieth-Century England.
E-mail (including E-mail Interviews) Give the author of the message, followed by the subject line in quotation marks.State to whom to message was sent, the date the message was sent, and the medium of publication.A Listserv, Discussion Group, or Blog Posting Cite Web postings as you would a standard Web entry.
Provide the author of the work, the title of the posting in quotation marks, the Web site name in italics, the publisher, and the posting date.Follow with the medium of publication and the date of access.Include screen names as author names when author name is not known.If both names are known, place the author’s name in brackets.Remember if the publisher of the site is unknown, use the abbreviation n.
Editor, screen name, author, or compiler name (if available).
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Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher).MLA Works Cited: Other Common Sources Several sources have multiple means for citation, especially those that appear in varied formats: films, DVDs, videocassettes; published and unpublished interviews, interviews over email; published and unpublished conference proceedings.The following section groups these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print, periodical, and electronic sources sections This handbook on preparing to write assignments is designed to help you develop your strategies for planning. Hopefully, it will help you to get the most out of your experience of writing at University and provide encouragement for managing this type of assessment. A list of useful resources referred to here is provided at the .The following section groups these sorts of citations as well as others not covered in the print, periodical, and electronic sources sections.
An Interview Interviews typically fall into two categories: print or broadcast published and unpublished (personal) interviews, although interviews may also appear in other, similar formats such as in email format or as a Web document.Personal Interviews Personal interviews refer to those interviews that you conduct yourself.
List the interview by the name of the interviewee Who can help me write a paper natural resources Graduate Formatting Academic 3 hours.List the interview by the name of the interviewee.Include the descriptor Personal interview and the date of the interview.Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast) List the interview by the name of the interviewee interdisciplinary studies.Published Interviews (Print or Broadcast) List the interview by the name of the interviewee.If the name of the interview is part of a larger work like a book, a television program, or a film series, place the title of the interview in quotation marks.Place the title of the larger work in italics.If the interview appears as an independent title, italicize it.
, print, Web, DVD) and fill in the rest of the entry with the information required by that medium.For books, include the author or editor name after the book title.Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name.
You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper.” Interviews with Britain’s Angry Young Men.
Online-only Published Interviews List the interview by the name of the interviewee.If the interview has a title, place it in quotation marks.Cite the remainder of the entry as you would other exclusive Web content.
Place the name of the Website in italics, give the publisher name (or sponsor), the publication date, the medium of publication (Web), and the date of access.Remember that if no publisher name is give, insert the abbreviation n.Note: If the interview from which you quote does not feature a title, add the descriptor Interview (unformatted) after the interviewee’s name.You may also use the descriptor Interview by to add the name of the interview to the entry if it is relevant to your paper.
Speeches, Lectures, or Other Oral Presentations (including Conference Presentations) Provide the speaker’s name.Then, give the title of the speech (if any) in quotation marks.Follow with the name of the meeting and organization, the location of the occasion, and the date.
Use the descriptor that appropriately expresses the type of presentation (e., Address, Lecture, Reading, Keynote Speech, Guest Lecture, Conference Presentation).Published Conference Proceedings Cite published conference proceedings like a book.
If the date and location of the conference are not part of the published title, add this information after the published proceedings title.Conference Title that Does Not Include Conference Date and Location.
Place of publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.To cite a presentation from a published conference proceedings, begin with the presenter’s name.
Place the name of the presentation in quotation marks.
Follow with publication information for the conference proceedings.” Conference Title that Includes Conference Date and Location.Place of publication: Publisher, Date of Publication.A Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph Include the artist’s name.Give the title of the artwork in italics.
If the date of composition is unknown, place the abbreviation n.Finally, provide the name of the institution that houses the artwork followed by the location of the institution.
For photographic reproductions of artwork (e.images of artwork in a book), cite the bibliographic information as above followed by the information for the source in which the photograph appears, including page or reference numbers (plate, figure, etc.
For artwork in an online format, consult “An Image (Including a Painting, Sculpture, or Photograph)” by following the link Works Cited: Electronic Sources at the bottom of this page.Films or Movies List films (in theaters or not yet on DVD or video) by their title.Include the name of the director, the film studio or distributor, and the release year.If relevant, list performer names after the director’s name.
To cite a DVD or other video recording, see “Recorded Films and Movies” below.Kevin Spacey, Gabriel Byrne, Chazz Palminteri, Stephen Baldwin, and Benecio del Toro.To emphasize specific performers ( perf.), begin the citation with the name of the desired performer or director, followed by the appropriate abbreviation.
Recorded Films or Movies List films by their title.Include the name of the director, the distributor, and the release year.If relevant, list performer names after the director’s name.End the entry with the appropriate medium of publication (e.Johnny Depp, Martin Landau, Sarah Jessica Parker, Patricia Arquette.Broadcast Television or Radio Program Begin with the title of the episode in quotation marks.Provide the name of the series or program in italics.Also include the network name, call letters of the station followed by the city, and the date of broadcast.For television episodes on Videocassette or DVD refer to the “Recorded Television Episodes” section below.DVD, Videocassette) Cite recorded television episodes like films (see above).Begin with the episode name in quotation marks.When the title of the collection of recordings is different than the original series (e., the show Friends is in DVD release under the title Friends: The Complete Sixth Season), list the title that would be help researchers locate the recording.Give the distributor name followed by the date of distribution.Note: The writer may choose to include information about directors, writers, performers, producers between the title and the distributor name.Use appropriate abbreviations for these contributors (e.Sound Recordings List sound recordings in such a way that they can easily be found by readers.Generally, citations begin with the artist name.They might also be listed by composers ( comp.Otherwise, list composer and performer information after the album title.Use the appropriate abbreviation after the person’s name and a comma, when needed.Put individual song titles in quotation marks.Provide the name of the recording manufacturer followed by the publication date (or n.List the appropriate medium at the end of the entry (e.For MP3 recordings, see the “Digital Files” section below.Note: If you know and desire to list the recording date, include this information before the manufacturer name.Use the abbreviation for “recorded” ( Rec.) and list the recording date (dd mm year format) before the manufacturer name.
Digital Files (PDFs, MP3s, JPEGs) Determine the type of work to cite (e., article, image, sound recording) and cite appropriately.
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End the entry with the name of the digital format (e., PDF, JPEG file, Microsoft Word file, MP3).If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation, give the author’s name, the name of the work, the date of creation, and the medium of publication China is a big area affected by this problem because of all the overpopulation there. There is 1.351 billion people in china and with increasing population we will run out of natural resources. The united states of america is another major user of the natural resources, with only 313.9 million the USA is one of the biggest users .If the work does not follow traditional parameters for citation, give the author’s name, the name of the work, the date of creation, and the medium of publication.
Use Digital file when the medium cannot be determined.
“Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace.It’s always best to consult the current MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for any MLA question Best websites to buy a natural resources paper Chicago 43 pages / 11825 words US Letter Size 4 days.
It’s always best to consult the current MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers for any MLA question.
If you are using MLA style for a class assignment, it’s also a good idea to consult your professor, advisor, TA, or other campus resources for help.They’re the ones who can tell you how the style should apply in your particular case.Print Resources from the Modern Language Association MLA Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd Edition (ISBN-13: 978-0-87352-297-7) MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition (ISBN-13: 978-1-60329-024-1) MLA Abbreviations There are a few common trends in abbreviating that you should follow when using MLA, though there are always exceptions to these rules.For a complete list of common abbreviations used in academic writing, see Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, and Chapter 8 of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition.
This guide provides only a very small portion of the abbreviations suggested by MLA.
Each section cross-references the appropriate sections and page numbers of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers and the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing.Uppercase Letter Abbreviations Do not use periods or spaces in abbreviations composed solely of capital letters, except in the case of proper names: US, MA, CD, HTML P.White Lowercase Letter Abbreviations Use a period if the abbreviation ends in a lower case letter, unless referring to an internet suffix, where the period should come before the abbreviation: assn.gov (URL suffixes) Note: Degree names are a notable exception to the lowercase abbreviation rule.PhD, EdD, PsyD Use periods between letters without spacing if each letter represents a word in common lower case abbreviations: a.
mph, os, rpm, ns For more on upper- and lowercase letter abbreviation designations, see Section 7.Introduction (234) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, or Section 8.Introduction (261-62) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition.
Abbreviations in Citations Time Designations Remember to follow common trends in abbreviating time and location within citations.Month names longer than four letters used in journal and magazine citations: Jan.For more information on time designations, see Section 7.
Time Designations (235) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, or Section 8.Time Designations (262-63) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition.Geographic Names Geographic names of states and countries in book citations when the publisher’s city is not well known or could be confused with another city.
Abbreviate country, province, and state names.; Sherbrooke, QC For more information on time designations, see Section 7.Geographic Names (236-40) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, or Section 8.
Geographic Names (264-69) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition.for written by or writer For more information on scholarly abbreviations, see Section 7.Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words (240-47) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, or Section 8.
Common Scholarly Abbreviations and Reference Words (269-82) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition.Publisher Names Shorten publisher’s names as much as possible in book citations.You only need to provide your readers with enough information for them to identify the publisher.Many publishers can be identified by only acronyms or a shortened version of their names.MLA suggests a few rules for you to follow when abbreviating publishers: Omit articles, business abbreviations (like Corp.
Press, Publishers, House) Cite only the last name of a publisher with the name of one person (e.Norton) and only the last name of the first listed for a publisher with multiple names (e.McGraw for McGraw-Hill) Use standard abbreviations when possible (e.
) Use the acronym of the publisher if the company is commonly know by that abbreviation (e.MLA, ERIC, GPO) Use only U and P when referring to university presses (e.Cambridge UP or U of Chicago P) Here is a short list of publisher abbreviations that you might use.Consult Chapter 7 of the MLA Handbook for a more complete list.(Academy for Educational Development, Inc.) Little (Little, Brown and Company, Inc.
) MIT P (The MIT Press) NCTE (The National Council of Teachers of English) SIRS (Social Issues Resources Series) UMI (University Microfilms International) For more information on publisher names, see Section 7.Publishers’ Names (247-49) of the MLA Handbooks for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition, or Section 8.Publishers’ Names (282-85) of the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 3rd edition.
This handout provides an example of a Works Cited page in MLA 2009 format.Posted 24-Nov-2017 13:47 by author slasher691 Essay for School and College Students on the Importance Of.APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose.All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.And the importance of English as a second official and a link language.
Essay for School and College Students on.How to Write an Essay - Step-By-Step Guide - ThoughtCo Beneath the title, type the author's name: first name, middle initial(s), and last name.Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author(s) conducted the research.Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above).
How to write a standard essay in English following a common essay outline structure also known as the hamburger essay.Argument essays, graphs, other writing, edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.Welcome to ! The site is aimed at people who are learning English and taking the IELTS or TOEFL exams in writing or speaking.ESSAYS IMPORTANCE OF ENGL SH - For more information, please consult the Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.
In today’s global world, the importance of English can not be denied and ignored since English is the most common language spoken everwhere.Essay on english as a link language toronto - Parsons Farm.Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.Include a page header (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page.
October 4, 2017 Essay on english as a link language toronto.Business coursework help gcse zones college application essay tell us about yourself written personal.How to Write an Essay with Pictures - wikiHow You should use a clear font that is highly readable.To create a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right.Throughout your academic career, you will often be asked to write essays.You may have to work on an assigned essay for class, enter an essay.Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide You may also visit our Additional Resources page for more examples of APA papers.When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom.
The History of English - English as a Global Language Individual Resources Contributors' names and the last edited date can be found in the orange boxes at the top of every page on the OWL.Increasingly, the long-term future of English as a global language probably lies in the hands of.
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