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Journalism and publishing terms - jargon buster This page is intended to be a glossary of old and new media terms of relevance to the practice of journalism.To edit or add glossary entries on this page, please click here or email your suggestions or questions to john at .

Wherever possible when adding or editing items please include links to relevant sites The posting below gives some great advice on writing a persuasive cover letter for your research paper submission. It is from   Note: The cover letter is the only section of the manuscript that is single-spaced.   Some journals such as The New England Journal of Medicine have an online Presubmission Inquiries website:..Wherever possible when adding or editing items please include links to relevant sites.

Your edits may take up to two hours before they appear live on this page.A Above the fold - A broadsheet paper folded in half for display 3 Apr 2018 - These resources provide an overview of journalistic writing with explanations of the most important and most often used elements of journalism and the   This Web page is intended to provide an introduction to AP style and a summary of some AP style rules; however, the Associated Press Stylebook  .A Above the fold - A broadsheet paper folded in half for display.The top half of the page, above the fold, is held to be the most important real estate in the paper.A reporter’s ambition is to get an article on the front page; a reporter’s supreme ambition is to get that article above the fold.

(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Accountability - The requirement to explain decisions and actions.Active Proceedings ( sub judice) - These occur in a criminal court of law when a person has been arrested, a warrant for his or her arrest has been issued, there are bail conditions (including police bail), a summons has been issued or a person has been charged (with a criminal offence).ABC - Audit Bureau of Circulations; a group that audits newspaper circulation figures.

ABCe - Audit Bureau of Circulations Electronic - division of the ABC that audits traffic figures for online publications.

ACAP - Automated Content Access Protocol, a platform that would allow search engines to recognise the terms and conditions of specific websites.Add - Copy to be added to a story already written.Adobe InDesign - Desktop publishing program, now being used more widely in place of QuarkXPress.Ad impression - Term used to describe the number of times an advert is seen.Advertisers usually sell space based on the exposure per thousand impressions.

This is called Cost per impression (CPM).Alternatively, they might sell on a pay-per-click (CPC) basis (also known as cost-per-click - CPC) ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line; high bandwidth web connection often just called broadband.Advance - A story outlining a future event.Also means to raise the priority of a story or an upfront payment for written work, particularly long articles or text.Advertorial - An advert in the form of a complementary editorial piece, usually labelled as an advert.

AJAX — A bundle of technologies and techniques that allow a web page to do things quietly in the background without reloading the whole page.AJAX is not a programming language, but rather an acronym used to describe that bundle, “Asynchronous Javascript and XML.” AJAX provides much of the functionality associated with Web 2.One of the first big uses of AJAX was Gmail, which allowed it to be much more responsive than other web e-mail at the time.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Algorithm — A set of instructions or procedures used in order to accomplish a task, such as creating search results in Google.In the context of search, algorithms are used to provide the most relevant results first based on those instructions.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) All Caps - A word or sentence written in all capital letters.AM Mark - the symbol used for denoting the end of a feature story in a periodical.Analogue television - TV transmitted in radio waves as opposed to digital TV.

Android — Usually used in the context of Android phone, Android is a free and open source operating system developed by Google that powers a variety of mobile phones from different manufacturers and carriers.In contrast to Apple's tightly controlled architecture and App Store, Android allows users to install apps from the Android Market and from other channels, such as directly from a developer's website — which allows for X-rated content, for example.Some well-known Android phones are the Nexus One, the Motorola Droid and HTC Evo.Expect to see competitors to the iPad running a version of Android.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Angle - The approach or focus of a story.API - the abbreviation of Application Programming Interface: a set of functions, procedures, methods, classes or protocols that an operating system, library or service provides to support requests made by computer programs.App — Short for application, a program that runs inside another service.Many mobile phones allow apps to be downloaded, leading to a burgeoning economy for modestly priced software.

Can also refer to a program or tool that can be used within a website.Apps generally are built using software toolkits provided by the underlying service, whether it is iPhone or Facebook.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Assignment - A job given to a journalist by an editor.Astroturfing - A term used to describe fake grassroots support on websites and in blog comments.A method most usually employed by the public relations and advertising industry and political groups.

Atom — A syndication format for machine readable web feeds that is usually accessible via a URL.While it was created as an alternative to RSS (Real Simple Syndication) to improve upon RSS's deficiencies (such as ambiguities), it still is secondary to RSS.(See also, RSS) (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Attribute - to quote the original source of material, whether it be a quote of copyrighted work.Audit - An independent assessment of the validity of statistics used in adverts, newspapers etc.AOP - Formed in 2002, the Association of Online Publishers is an industry body for UK web publishers.

The AOP represents the interests of 160 publishing companies.Average issue readership - Number of people who have read the newspaper or magazine in the period that it was issued, also known as AIR.Campaign - The various stages of an advertising project from beginning to end.Caption - Text printed below a picture used to describe it and who took it.

Cascading stylesheets (CSS) - Technique used for designing web pages.One file that defines the style for a whole site.chaser - A page or set of pages typeset after the formal edition close to attempt to get breaking news into the paper.

(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Chat rooms - An interactive part of a website where visitors can write messages to each other people in real time.

Also known as forums and message boards.Churnalism - Bad journalism; journalists that churn out rewrites of press releases.Centre of visual interest (CVI) - The prominent item on a page usually a headline, picture or graphic.CIOJ - the Chartered Institute of Journalists.Circulation - Number of copies sold by newspapers or magazines.

In the UK these figures are monitored by ABC - The Audit Bureau of Circulations.Citizen journalism - Term used to describe the reporting of news events by members of the public most commonly on blogs and social networking websites.Other terms include participatory journalism and networked journalism though it should not be confused with civic journalism, which is practiced by professional journalists.Checquebook journalism - Practice of paying for Civic media — An umbrella term describing media technologies that create a strong sense of engagement among residents through news and information.It is often used as a contrast to “citizen journalism” because it also encompasses mapping, wikis and databases.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Classified advertising - Advertising placed by individuals in newspapers.Clickthrough - When a reader clicks on an advert and is redirected to a new page.Advertisers sometimes buy adverts based on a rate per click called a Click-through rate or CTR.Client side — Referring to network software where work takes place on the user's computer, the client, rather than at the central computer, known as the server.

Advantages of doing so include speed and bandwidth.An example is Javascript, a programming language that allows developers to build interactivity into websites.The work is done within the browser, rather than at the hosting website.(See also server side) (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Closed question - A simple yes/no question that does little to encourage an interviewee to open up.Cloud computing — An increasingly popular computing model in which information and software are provided on demand from over the Internet rather than staying on local computers.

Cloud computing is appealing because companies can reduce the amount they spend on their own computer servers and software but can also quickly and easily expand as the company grows.Examples of cloud computing applications include Google Docs and Yahoo Mail.Amazon offers two cloud computing services: EC2, which many start-ups now use as a cheap way to launch their products, and S3, an online storage system many companies use for cheap storage.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) CMS (Content Management System) — Software designed to organise large amounts of dynamic material for a website, usually consisting of at least templates and a database.It is generally synonymous with online publishing system.

The material can include documents, photos or videos.While the first generation of content management systems were custom and proprietary, in recent years there has been a surge in free open-source systems such as Drupal, WordPress and Joomla.Content management systems are sometimes built custom from scratch with frameworks such as Ruby on Rails or Django.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) cold type - Headlines and text produced on photographic paper and pasted up in a composing room.Increasingly supplanted by electronic transmission of pages directly to a printing plant, where the pages emerge as metal plates to go on the printing press.

(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Column - A regular feature often on a specific topic, written by the same person who is known as a columnist.Composing room - The place in which printers, now vanished, once assembled pages in hot type or cold type.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Contempt of court - The criminal offence of ignoring court rules.Convergence - The term used to describe multimedia newsrooms producing news for different publishing platforms.

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Cookie - Small text file that is downloaded to your computer when you visit a site.

The next time you visit, the site can use the file to remember details such as your login information.Copy approval - A source or interviewer asking to see the text of an article prior to publication .Copy approval - A source or interviewer asking to see the text of an article prior to publication.

(Always discouraged!) copy editor - An anonymous drudge who attempts, against great odds, to correct the many faults of writers before publication.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Copywriting - Creating the text for an advertisement.Coverline - Captions on a magazine cover.Cover story - Leading story used on front cover .Cover story - Leading story used on front cover.CPA (Cost Per Action) — A pricing model in which the advertiser is charged for an ad based on how many users take a specific, pre-defined action—such as buying a product from an online store—based on viewing an ad elrubius.es/essay/where-to-buy-a-health-sciences-essay-55-pages-15125-words-business-two-hours-privacy.CPA (Cost Per Action) — A pricing model in which the advertiser is charged for an ad based on how many users take a specific, pre-defined action—such as buying a product from an online store—based on viewing an ad.This is the “gold standard” for advertisers because it most directly matches the cost of an ad to its effectiveness.

However, it's not commonly used since it's extremely difficult to measure: it is often unclear when or how to attribute an action to a specific ad.(Also sometimes referred to as Cost Per Acquisition.) (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) CPC (Cost Per Click) — A pricing model in which the advertiser is charged for an ad based on how many users click it.This is a common model for “search advertising” (the all-text ads associated with search results) and for text ads in general.

CPC is well-suited for “directed” advertising, intended to prompt an immediate response, because a user's clicking on an ad shows engagement with it.

Google AdWords is generally priced on a CPC basis.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) CPM - cost per thousand impressions.This is the cost an advertiser pays for 1,000 page views.The M in CPM is the Roman numeral for 1,000.CQ - An indication that the name or term so noted has been checked and verified.

Copy editors, whose suspicions are well founded, often suspect that reporters use CQ to indicate “better check this”.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Creative Commons — A flexible set of copyright licenses that allow content creators to specify which rights they reserve and which they waive regarding their work that is supposed to codify collaborative spirit of the Internet.There are six main Creative Commons licenses based on four conditions that creators can choose to apply: Attribution, Share Alike, Non-Commercial, and No Derivative Works.The least restrictive of the licenses is Attribution, which grants anyone, from an individual to a large company, the right to distribute, display, or otherwise make use of the work so long as the creator is credited.The most restrictive is Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives, which grants only redistribution.

First released in December 2002 by the nonprofit Creative Commons organization, which was inspired by the open source GNU GPL license, the licenses are now used on an estimated 130 million works worldwide.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Crosshead - A few words used to break up large amounts of text, normally taken from the main text.CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) — Instructions used to describe the look and formatting for documents, usually HTML, so that the presentation is separate from the actual content of the document itself.If you watch a web page that loads slowly, you will often see the text first load and then “snap into place” with its look and feel.

That look and feel is controlled by the CSS.CSS, which was first introduced by the World Wide Web Consortium in the late 1990s, helped eliminate the clumsy and often repetitive markup in the original CSV (Comma-Separated Values) — An extremely simple data format which stores information in a text file.CSV is popular precisely because it can be easily read by many different applications, including spreadsheets, word processors, programming text editors and web browsers.Thus it is a common way for people, including governments, to make their data available.Each row of data is represented by a line of text.

Each column is delimited/separated by a comma (,).To prevent confusion about commas in the data, the terms are often surrounded by double quotes (”).Many applications support the use of alternative column delimiters (the pipe character, |, is popular).Example below: “Name”,”Address”,”email” “Laura”,”100 North Road, Brighton, Sussex”,”[email protected] ” (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Cub - A trainee reporter.Also known as a rookie or junior reporter.

Cuttings - A journalist's collection of published print work.Also known as clips and sometimes presented as a portfolio.Cuttings job - An article which has been put together using research culled from a number of other articles or news items.Cyber-journalist - A journalist that works on the internet.

D Data visualization — A growing area of content creation in which information is represented graphically and often interactively.This can be used for subjects as diverse as an analysis of a speech by the prime minister and the popularity of baby names over time.While it has deep roots in academia, data visualization has begun to emerge on content sites as a way to handle the masses of data that are being made public, often by government.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Dateline - A line at the beginning of a story stating the date and the location.

Deadline - The time at which an editor requests a journalists to finish an assignment.Death-knock - Calling at the house of a bereaved relative or friend when reporting on the death.Deck - Part of the headline which summarises the story.Defamation - Information that is written by one person which damages another person's reputation.E e - Often used to indicate an electronic version of something, for example eNews, for an electronic newsletter, or eGovernment, to describe electronic government.EC2 — A computing power rental system by Amazon that has become popular among technology companies because it is much cheaper than maintaining your own computer servers.Users can host their applications on EC2 and pay depending on usage.(Also see cloud computing) (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Editor - Someone who prepares material for print or broadcast.Editorialise - To write in an opinionated way.Embed — A term meaning to place a specific piece of content from one web page inside of another one.This is often done using an embed code (a few lines of HTML and/or Javascript) that you can copy or paste.

This is a common way for video content to be spread around the Internet and is increasingly being used for interactive components.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Encryption - TV signals encoded so only paying subscribers can watch.Endnote - Text written at the end of an article stating the authors credentials.Exclusivity - When an advert appears exclusively on a page, rather than being in rotation with other ads.Fisk - Detailed word-by-word analysis and critique of an article.Flash - A program used to display design-heavy, animated content.Flash - 1) Short news story on a new event.2) Flash — A proprietary platform owned by Adobe Systems that allows for drag-and-drop animations, program interactivity, and dynamic displays for the Web.

The language used, ActionScript, is owned by Adobe; this contrasts with many other popular programming languages that are open source.Creators must use Adobe's Creative Suite products and web surfers must install a Flash plug-in for their browser.Many claim that Flash players are unstable and inefficient, slowing down web pages and crashing operating systems.Apple has not allowed Adobe to create a Flash player for the iPhone operating system, which has created a feud between the two companies.HTML5 is emerging as an open alternative to Flash.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Flatplan - A page plan that shows where the articles and adverts are laid out.Follow-up - An update on a previous story.Foursquare — One of many new mobile services, along with Gowalla, SCVNGR and others, that combines geolocation with game mechanics.Launched in 2009 at SXSW Interactive conference, Foursquare allows users to “check in” at locations (bars, restaurants, playgrounds and more) to inform people in their social networks of their whereabouts while earning badges, collecting points and becoming the “mayor” of certain locations.

Despite a relatively modest user base at the beginning, Foursquare quickly attracted a lot of attention for its potential for marketing and customer brand loyalty.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Framework — A software package that makes writing programs easier by providing all the “plumbing” for a particular type of task (like writing a web app), allowing programmers to just “fill in the blanks” with their own project-specific needs.For instance, Web development frameworks like Ruby on Rails (written in Ruby, meaning programmers use Ruby to do the “fill in the blanks” tasks) and Django (written in Python), have easy-to-use, built-in support for common web development tasks, such as reading and writing to a database, writing content in html, and so forth.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Freelancer - Someone that works alone, usually on a contract-to-contract basis.Freesheet - A publication that is free to consumers and generates its revenue from advertising.

Free-to-air - TV service received without having to decode or pay.Freeview - Commercial free-to-air digital service, between BBC, BSkyB and the transmission firm Crown Castle.Frontline Club - A club in London that promotes “freedom of expression and support journalists, cameramen and photographers who risk their lives in the course of their work.A method of moving files, usually used to transfer files from your computer to a web server.

FYI - An abbreviation meaning for your information.G Geotag — A piece of information that goes with content and contains geographically based information.Commonly used on photo sites such as Flickr or in conjunction with user-generated content, to show where a photo, video or article came from.There has been some discussion of its increasing relevance with geographically connected social networking sites, such as Foursquare.Twitter has implemented geotagging, and Facebook has announced plans to do so.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Get - A very good or exclusive interview.

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GIF - A type of picture file, often used for images that include text.Glossite - The website of a glossy women's magazine.Goat-choker - An article of inordinate and suffocating length, produced to gratify the vanity of the author and the aspirations of the publication Purdue OWL Journalism and Journalistic Writing.Goat-choker - An article of inordinate and suffocating length, produced to gratify the vanity of the author and the aspirations of the publication.

(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Grip - A person that looks after the equipment required to make a TV camera move.

Grip-and-grin - A photograph of no inherent interest in which a notable and an obscure person shake hands at an occasion of supposed significance 15 Nov 2013 - Over the past decade, digital tools and mobile platforms have rocketed journalism to a universe of innovation, interactivity and immediacy once   over have the confidence to come across any person, place, thing, event, trend, viewpoint, document, law, word or even a single letter and respond with an idea  .Grip-and-grin - A photograph of no inherent interest in which a notable and an obscure person shake hands at an occasion of supposed significance.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Geotagging - Adding metadata to an image, video, RSS feed, web page etc, which identifies the geographical location relating to the content Iframe — An HTML tag that allows for one web page to be wholly included inside another; it is a popular way to create embeddable interactive featuresIframes are usually constructed via JavaScript as a way around web browsers' security features, which try to prevent JavaScript on one page from quickly talking to JavaScript on an external page.Many security breaches have been designed using iframes.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Impressions - The number of times an advertising banner was viewed during a campaign.An internet - Any network of connected computers.

The internet - The international network of interconnected computers.The World Wide Web, email, FTP and usenet are all part of the Internet.Intranet - A private computer network inside a company or organisation for internal use only.Intro - Very important first paragraph, known as a 'lead' in the US.

Inventory - The number of advertisement spaces for sale on a web site at a given time.

Island position - An advert surrounded by editorial content in the middle of the page.ITV network - 15 regional franchises that make up ITV1.ITV is the Broadcaster that was formed by the merger of Carlton and Granada.J Javascript - A scripting language commonly used to add functionality to web sites beyond that which is achievable in HTML.Joomla — A free, open-source content management built in PHP.

It is more powerful than WordPress but not as powerful as Drupal.However it is known for its extensive design options.The name Joomla means “all together” in Swahili.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Joost - interactive television software produced by the makers of Skype and Kazaa.Journalist - Someone who writes, researches and reports news, or works on the production of a publication.

Sometimes shortened to journo, hack or scribe.Common type of picture file used on the web.jQuery — An incredibly popular open source JavaScript library designed for manipulating HTML pages and handling events.Released in 2006, jQuery quickly gained widespread adoption because of its efficiency and elegance.

The definitive feature of jQuery is its support for “chaining” operations together to simplify otherwise complicated tasks.It is the most popular JavaScript library.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) JSON (JavaScript Object-Notation) — A Web data publishing format that is designed to be both easily human — and machine — readable.It is an alternative to XML that is more concise because, unlike XML, it is not a markup language that requires open and close tags.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Jumpline - A line indicating a continuation, or jump, of an article on a subsequent page.

Though readership surveys for generations have indicated that readers despise jumps and generally do not follow them, it does not suit newspapers to do otherwise.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Kerning - Adjustment of horizontal space between two written characters.Key/value store — A simpler way of storing data than a relational or document database.Key-value stores have a simple structure, matching values to accessible “keys,” or indices.In Web development, key/value stores are often (though not always) used for optimisation.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Kicker - The first sentence or first few words of a story's lead, set in a font size larger than the body text of the story.Kill fee - A reduced fee paid to a journalist for a story that is not used.Kittyblog - A pointless and boring weblog, possibly about the owner's cat.L LAMP — An acronym referring to a bundle of free open-source Web technologies that have become incredibly popular as a method for building websites.

The letters stand for the Linux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database, and either PHP, Perl or Python.This is often referred to as a “LAMP stack.” A rival alternative would be a bundle of Microsoft products.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Layout - (noun) How the page is designed and formatted.Layout sub-editor - A sub-editor who specialises in laying out pages.

Leader - An article that shows the opinion of a newspaper.Leading - Adjustment of vertical space between two lines.Leading questions - A question that contains the predicted answer within the question.lede - The phonetic spelling of lead, the beginning, usually the first paragraph, of an article, so spelled as to indicate the specialized meaning rather than the common meaning to a Linotype operator.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Legacy media — An umbrella term to describe the centralised media institutions that were dominant during the second half of the 20th century, including — but not limited to — television, radio, newspapers and magazines, all which generally had a uni-directional distribution model.

Sometimes “legacy media” is used interchangeably with “MSM,” for “Mainstream Media.” Legacy media sits in contrast with social media, where the production and sharing is of equal weight to the consumption.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Libel - A case for defamation.Defendent would need to show claims were true, fair comment or an accurate record of parliamentary or court proceedings.Library — In the context of programming, this contains code that can be accessed for software and Web development, enabling one to perform common tasks without writing new code every time.

One well-known library is jQuery, released in 2006 and now the most popular JavaScript library, which boasts that it allows coders to “write less, do more.” (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Link journalism - Scott Karp defines link journalism as “linking to other reporting on the web to enhance, complement, source, or add more context to a journalist's original reporting”.Good link journalism should briefly summarise the content of the article it is linking to, name the source and author and, of course, link directly to it.

Any direct reproduction of text should be kept to an absolute minimum, appear in quotes, and be clearly attributed to its source.

For example: “I saw it coming” Mr Smith tells the Times or “This is the next big thing,” writes Joe Bloggs (the writer you are quoting).The journalist should also endeavour wherever possible to find the original source of an article, rather than link to someone else's later version of it.Also bear in mind that your own reputation will be judged on the quality of the articles you link to; if you have any interest or connection with the story, publication or author, then declare it.Linotype - A machine for the mechanical setting of type, the brainchild of Ottmar Merganthaler of Baltimore, to whom all praise be given.The Linotype operator used hot metal, melted lead, to create slugs of type by manipulating a keyboard.

(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Lobster shift - Working in the hours after a publication has gone to print.Location-based services — A service, usually in a mobile Web or mobile device application, that uses your location in order to perform a certain task, such as finding nearby restaurants, giving you directions, or locating your friends.Foursquare and Gowalla are location-based services.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Long-lead magazines - Glossy magazines, quarterlies and journals that typically commission and accept work months in advance of publication.

Long tail - The effect of publishing content online and keeping it available in an archive.Unlike in a newspaper, old stories will continue to receive traffic long after publication date, hence the long tail.NCTJ - National Council for Training of Journalists, official UK accreditation board for journalism courses.Networked journalism - Another term to describe participatory journalism or citizen journalism.News agency - Company that sells stories to newspapers or magazines.Newspaper Society - Industry body representing the regional press & local press.Newsreader - Software that helps receive and read RSS blog and news feeds.NIB - News in brief - a quick summary of a story.

Nut graf - Paragraph containing the essential elements of a story.NUJ - National Union of Journalists, a UK trade union.O OAuth — A new method that allows users to share information stored on one site with another site.For example, some web-based Twitter clients will use OAuth to connect to your account, instead of requiring you to provide your password directly to that third-party site.This allows sites to validate users' identities without having full access to their personal accounts.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Ofcom - Broadcasting industry regulator.Off diary - An unscheduled or unpredicted story.Off the floor - When a page has been completed and removed from the composing room (cf.When an entire edition is off the floor, it is said to have been put to bed.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) On diary - Scheduled story.P Palm Pre — A smart phone introduced in 2009 by Palm which uses webOS and allows for multitasking, unlike the iPhone.

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Despite rave reviews, the product is generally acknowledged to have come out too late to gain meaningful traction against the iPhone or Google's Android operating system.HP recently announced that it would acquire Palm, which was once the leading smart phone company.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) PACT - Industry body representing independent cinema and tv producers How to write a presentation journalism original Premium 76 pages / 20900 words single spaced Business.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) PACT - Industry body representing independent cinema and tv producers.

Pasteup - The assemblage of pages by pasting type onto page mockups, which are then photographed to be made into metal plates for the printing press.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Pay-per-view - A single programme that the viewer has to pay for Should i buy a journalism presentation Academic 46 pages / 12650 words 9 days Platinum.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Pay-per-view - A single programme that the viewer has to pay for.Pay TV - Paid subscription service for TV Should i buy a journalism presentation Academic 46 pages / 12650 words 9 days Platinum.Pay TV - Paid subscription service for TV.A hand-held computer combining a phone, organiser and web client .A hand-held computer combining a phone, organiser and web client.PDF - Portable Document Format – a standard file format that allows web publishers to post documents viewable by any user who installs a copy of the free Acrobat Reader elrubius.es/homework/best-websites-to-get-an-software-engineering-homework-a4-british-european-junior-custom-writing-plagiarism-free.PDF - Portable Document Format – a standard file format that allows web publishers to post documents viewable by any user who installs a copy of the free Acrobat Reader.Peer-to-peer (P2P) — A network architecture in which users share resources on their own computers directly with others.Often used to speed up videos and large multimedia pieces that can take a long time to download.Napster was an early example of a popular use of peer-to-peer architecture, although it was not fully peer-to-peer.

Today, Skype and BitTorrent are based on peer-to-peer technologies.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Perl — A dynamic language that is often used to phrase and sort information because of its powerful abilities in manipulating text.Perl can be used to pull large quantities of data down from websites and standardise and replace information in batch.Perl was more popular in past years, especially in the computer-assisted reporting community, but it has been overtaken in popularity by languages such as Python and Ruby.

Perl still has an active development community and is noted for the scope of its freely available libraries, which simplify development.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Photoblogging - Contributing photos to a blog.Photoshop - (noun) Computer program used to edit photographs.PHP — A popular web scripting language to generate web pages that was first developed in 1995, when it stood for “Personal Home Page.” (It is now a recursive acronym, standing for “PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.”) Popular websites that are written in PHP are Wikipedia, Facebook and WordPress.

It is criticized as being slow because it generates web pages on request.However, Facebook recently released its internally developed version of HipHop for PHP, which is designed to make the language dramatically more efficient.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) pica pole - A metal ruler used by printers in the composing room to measure type by picas (12 points to the pica, six picas to the inch).The pica pole is pounded against a metal surface in the ritual of banging out an employee leaving the premises for the last time.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Pitch - Story idea sent to an editor by a reporter.

Most monitors display around 1024 pixels wide by 768 pixels high.Platform — In the technology world, platform refers to the hardware or software that other applications are built upon.Computing platforms include Windows PC and Macintosh.Mobile platforms include Android, iPhone and Palm's webOS.

More recently, in an extension of its commonly used definition, Facebook has created a “platform,” allowing developers to build applications on top of it.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Podcasts - MP3 audio recordings that can automatically download to a user's computer as soon as they are published online.Pop-under/pop-behind - A web advert that opens under the browser window.Pop-up - A web advert that pops up on screen.

These are commonly blocked with a pop-up blocker.Posterous — A blogging and publishing platform to which users can submit via e-mail.Through APIs, it can push the content to other sites such as Flickr, Twitter and YouTube.It is a for-profit company based in San Francisco that came out of the YCombinator seed start-up program.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) PostgreSQL - An alternative to MySQL, another free and open-source relational database management system on the Internet.PostgreSQL is preferred by some in the technology community for its ability to operate as a spatial database, using PostGIS extensions.This enables developers to create applications that sort information based on geography, which can mean sorting by whether various places are within a certain county or pointing out the places that are geographically closest to the user.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Pork - Material held for later use, if needed.PPA - Periodical Publishers Association.

Industry body representing UK magazine publishers.Portal - A busy site often used as a starting point online through services such as messaging, news and searches.Programming language — A special type of language used to unambiguously instruct a computer how to perform tasks.Programming languages are used by software developers to create applications, including those for the web, for mobile phones, and for desktop operating systems.C, C++, Objective C, Java, JavaScript, Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby are examples of programming languages.

Proof - Copy of a laid-out page ready to be corrected.Prosumer - Marketing term used to describe professional consumers.Puff piece - A news story with editorialised, complimentary statements.PTC - Periodicals Training Council - The lead body for best practice in training and development for the magazine and business media sector.Primary accreditation body for magazine journalism courses.

Pulldown - Web text that is activated by a down arrow on a web menu.Pulitzer Prize - American journalism awards.There are fourteen prizes for journalism.The prizes have been awarded by Columbia University since 1917.Pulitzer-Prize-winner - An article of surpassing artistry or investigative virtuosity, usually of considerable length, written for Pulitzer jurors rather than the readership of the publication, despite the unlikelihood that the former group will have read it in its entirety before bestowing the laurels.

(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Pull-out quote - Selected quote from a story highlighted next to the main text.Python — A sophisticated computer language that is commonly used for Internet applications.Designed to be a very readable language, it is named after Monty Python.

It first appeared in 1991 and was originally created by Guido van Rossum, a Dutch computer programmer who now works at Google.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Rate card - A list of advertising rates provided by a publisher.reader - An article devoid of immediate news interest that will supposedly be of interest to the readership.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Recto - Right-hand page.

Relational database — A piece of software that stores data in a series of tables, with relationships defined between them.A news story might have columns for a headline, date, text and author, where author points to another table containing the author's first name, last name and email address.Information must be structured, but this allows for powerful queries.Examples include MySQL, Oracle, PostgreSQL and SQLite.Most modern websites use some kind of relational database to store content.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Redletter - Exclusive, breaking news coverage of a major news event, printed in red type.refer - A short summary attached to an article indicated a related story elsewhere in the publication.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Reporter - Someone who writes and researches news stories.Reporters without borders - An organisation founded in 1985 that fights for press freedom around the world.Retraction - A withdrawal of a previously-published story or fact.

Revision - A re-written or improved story, often with additional quotes or facts.Rich media - Artwork formats such as Flash, Java and DHTML that allow interactive or multimedia content.Roadblock - The sale of all the adverts on your home page to one advertiser.RSS - This began life as Rich Site Summary in 1999, then mutated to Really/Real Simple Simple Syndication in 2002, then Real Simple Synchronisation in 2005.Ruby — An increasingly popular programming language known for being powerful yet easy to write with.

Originally introduced in 1995 by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto, Ruby has gained increasing traction since 2005 because of the Ruby on Rails development framework, which can create websites quickly.Ruby is open source and is very popular for content-based sites (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Ruby on Rails — A popular Web framework based on the Ruby programming language that makes common development tasks easier “out of the box”.The power of Ruby on Rails, which was developed by the Chicago-based firm 37 Signals, comes from how quickly it can be used to create a basic website.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Run - To publish a story.S SaaS (Software as a Service) — A pricing strategy and business model, where companies build a software solution, usually business-to-business, and charge a fixed monthly rate to access it on the Internet.

is the best example, but other notables include Mailchimp and even Amazon Web Services.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Sacred cow - News or promotional material which a publisher or editor demands be published, often for personal reasons.Satellite television - TV received through a satellite dish.Scoop - An exclusive or first-published story.

Should i buy an journalism presentation confidentially a4 (british/european) college freshman platinum business

Scoopt - the world's first citizen journalism photograph agency owned by Getty Images.Scribd — A document-sharing site that is often described as a “YouTube for documents” because it allows other sites to embed its content.It allows people to upload files and others to download in various formats 8 Apr 2015 - Activity 1:2 Journalism History.   First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees that U.S. citizens will have the right to our own belief systems   John Campbell started The Boston News-Letter, which was published “by authority”, meaning that content was approved by the government. The paper..It allows people to upload files and others to download in various formats.

Recently Scribd, which is based in San Francisco, moved from Flash-based technology to HTML5 standards.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Scripting language — A programming language designed to be easy to use for everyday or administrative tasks.

It may involve trade-offs such as sacrificing some performance for ease of programming 26 Mar 2018 - Best website to write an tourism research paper american Best websites to get an philosophy homework Premium single spaced 11 days British.   4 me cheap custom research paper. help me Where to get a college research paper geometry originality custom writing senior single spaced us letter size I feel  .It may involve trade-offs such as sacrificing some performance for ease of programming.Popular scripting languages include PHP, Perl, Python and Ruby.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Search box - A tool that allows users to enter a word or phrase to search a database.Sell - Short sentence promoting an article, often pulling out a quote or a interesting sentence.SEO (Search Engine Optimization) — A suite of techniques for improving how a website ranks on search engines such as Google.SEO is often divided into “white hat” techniques, which (to simplify) try to boost ranking by improving the quality of a website, and “black hat” techniques, which try to trick search engines into thinking a page is of higher quality than it actually is.SEO can also refer to individuals and companies that offer to provide search engine optimization for websites.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) SEM (Search Engine Marketing) — A type of marketing that involves raising a company or product's visibility in search engines by paying to have it appear in search results for a given word.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Semantic web — A vision of the web that is almost entirely machine readable, in which documents are published in languages that are designed specifically for data.

It was first articulated by Tim Berners-Lee in 2001.In many implementations, tags would identify the information, such as

or .While there has been progress toward this front, many say this vision remains largely unrealized.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Server-sid — Referring to when network software runs in a central location, the server, rather than on the user's computer, often known as the client.

(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Tabloid - Smaller print newspaper size.Tag — A common type of metadata used to describe a piece of content that associates it with other content that has the same tag.Tags can be specific terms, people, locations, etc.used in the content it is describing, or more general terms that may not be explicitly stated, such as themes.The term “tag” is also used in the context of markup languages, such as identifying the name of the web page.</p><p>In HTML, tags usually come in sets of open and closed, with the closed tag containing an extra slash (”/”) inside.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Take - A section of an article.An article that is transmitted to the copy desk or the composing room as it is being written is sent in takes.</p><p>(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Taxonomy — A hierarchical classification system.In the world of content, this can be a hierarchy of terms (generally called nodes or entities) that are used to classify the category or subject content belongs to as well as terms that are included in the content.In many cases, website navigation systems appear taxonomical in that users narrow down from broad top-level categories to the granular feature they want to see.An ontology is similar to a taxonomy in that it is also a classification system with nodes or entities, but it is more complex and flexible because ontologies allow for non-hierarchical relationships.While in a taxonomy a node can be either a broader term or narrower term, in an ontology nodes can be related in any way.</p><p>(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Technobabble - Confusing technical jargon.Telegraph section - The section, in which national and foreign news was acquired by telegraph in the remote past.The copy was edited on the telegraph desk, a component of the copy desk.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Terrestrial television - TV sent through a beam transmitter directly into the home.</p><p>Testimonial - Endorsement of a product, often by a celebrity or well-respected client.Thirty - A numeral indicating the conclusion of a take of copy.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Tick-tock - A step-by-step account of how a particular event or phenomenon developed.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) TK - Proofreader's insertion mark for data to come.Tie in - Placing the facts of a new story within the context of past events.Tip - A lead of piece of new information about a new story.Tombstoning - In page layout, to put articles side by side so that the headlines are adjacent.The phenomenon is also referred to as bumping heads.</p><p>(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Top heads - Headlines at the top of a column.Traffic - Amount of users recorded by a website.Transparency — In the context of news and information, a term describing openness about information that has become increasingly popular.In many cases it is used to refer to the transparency of government releasing data to journalists and to the public.It is often used in the context of journalists being open about their reporting process and material by sharing with their readers before the final project emerges or providing more context in addition to the final product.</p><p>(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Tumblr — A free short-form blogging platform that allows users to post images, video, links, quotes and audio.The company is based in New York City and competes with Posterous.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Twitter - A service that allows users to send 140 character messages to 'friends' via mobile SMS, website or Instant Messenger.U UI (User Interface) — The part of a software application or website that users see and interact with, which takes into account the visual design and the structure of the program.While graphic design is an element of user interface design, it is only a portion of the consideration.</p><p>(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Unique users - The number of individual users, as identified by unique computer addresses, that visit a web site.Upload - To publish a file on the internet.URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) — The way to identify the location for something on the Internet.User - A visitor or reader on a web site.</p><p>User-generated content - Material created and submitted to sites by its users - such as photographs, video footage, comments, articles etc.UX (User Experience) — Generally referring to the area of design that involves the holistic interaction a user has with a product or a service.It incorporates many disciplines, including engineering, graphic design, content creation and psychology.User interface is one element of user experience.</p><p>(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Video journalist - A journalist who publishes video reports on TV and/or on the internet.</p><p>Vertical search engine - A search engine containing information on a specific subject area.W WAP - Wireless Application Protocol - an international standard for the application that enables access to a wireless internet network using a mobile device.Web scraping - Automated process of finding content on web pages and converting it into another form for use on another web site.Warblogs - Opinionated and political web logs.Webcasting - Online visual and/or audio broadcasts, usually in real time.</p><p>Webmercials - Similar format to television adverts used online.WebOS — Operating system used on the latest generation of Palm smart phones, including the Pre and the Pixi.Apps for webOS are developed using web standards ( HTML, Javascript and CSS), which means there is a low barrier to entry for web developers to create mobile apps for webOS as compared to other mobile platforms.It allows for having several applications open at the same time, unlike the current iPhone.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Webinar/Web conference - A seminar, lecture or presentation delivered over the internet.</p><p>0 — Referring to the generation of Internet technologies that allow for interactivity and collaboration on websites.0 (roughly the first decade of the World Wide Web) where static content was downloaded into the browser and read, Web 2.Technologies such as Ajax, which allow for rapid communication between the browser and the web server, underlie many Web 2.The term was popularized by a 2004 conference, held by O'Reilly Media and MediaLive, called Web 2.(Also see Ajax) (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Web 3.</p><p>0 — Sometimes used to refer to the semantic web.(Also see semantic web) (Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Widget - application available to download or embed on a desktop, homepage or social network.Allows you to share content, which will be automatically updated e.Widow - Last line of paragraph appearing on the first line of a column of text.Wiki — A web site with pages that can be easily edited by visitors using their web browser, but generally now gaining acceptance as a prefix to mean “collaborative.” Ward Cunningham created the first wiki, naming it WikiWikiWeb after the Hawaiian word for “quick.” A wiki enables the audience to contribute to a knowledge base on a topic or share information within an organization, like a newsroom.The best-known wiki in existence is Wikipedia, which burst onto the scene around 2000 as one of the first examples of mass collaborative information aggregation.</p><p>Other sites that have been branded “wiki” include Wikinews, Wikitravel, and WikiLeaks (which was originally but is no longer a wiki).(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Wire service - (also the wire) The Associated Press or other news service whose dispatches are transmitted electronically to the publication.(courtesy of John E McIntyre) Wi-fi - Wireless internet or network connection.Wiki - An information site that can be edited and added to by readers.<h2 id="6_1-million-story-ideas-writing-prompts-for-student-journalists-nbsp">1 million story ideas writing prompts for student journalists nbsp</h2><p>See Wikipedia - an online Wiki encyclopedia.</p><p>Wires - Stories or photographs sent electrically to your desktop.Wob - White text on a black or other coloured background <strong>Once among the “cash cows” of many campuses, journalism schools in recent years have experienced new challenges in recruiting and retaining qualified students. The annual analysis of trends in journalism education by the University of Georgia's Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication reported in 2014  </strong>.Wob - White text on a black or other coloured background.<h3></h3><p>WordPress — The most popular blogging software in use today, in large part because it is free and relatively powerful, yet easy to use.First released by Matt Mullenweg in 2003, WordPress attracts contributions from a large community of programmers and designers who give it additional functionality and visual themes <strong>Help me do college journalism presentation CSE Business Standard double spaced</strong>. </p><p>First released by Matt Mullenweg in 2003, WordPress attracts contributions from a large community of programmers and designers who give it additional functionality and visual themes.</p><p>Sites that use WordPress include the New York Times blogs, CNN and the LOLCats network.It has been criticized for security flaws.(Courtesy of Hacks/Hackers Survival Glossary) Last Edited: 2018-04-03 03:44:45 Introduction Associated Press style provides guidelines for news writing.Many newspapers, magazines and public relations offices across the United States use AP style.Although some publications such as the New York Times have developed their own style guidelines, a basic knowledge of AP style is considered essential to those who want to work in print journalism.</p><p>This Web page is intended to provide an introduction to AP style and a summary of some AP style rules; however, the Associated Press Stylebook includes more than 5,000 entries – far more than can be covered here.For a complete guide to AP style, writers should consult the most recent edition of the Associated Press Stylebook or visit the AP Stylebook website.Purpose The content of newspapers and other mass media is typically the result of many different writers and editors working together.AP style provides consistent guidelines for such publications in terms of grammar, spelling, punctuation and language usage.</p><p>Some guiding principles behind AP style are: Consistency Common Style Guidelines The Associated Press Stylebook provides an A-Z guide to issues such as capitalization, abbreviation, punctuation, spelling, numerals and many other questions of language usage.</p><p>What follows are summaries of some of the most common style rules.Abbreviations and Acronyms Some widely known abbreviations are required in certain situations, while others are acceptable but not required in some contexts.are required before a person’s full name when they occur outside a direct quotation.</p><p>Please note, that medical and political titles only need to be used on first reference when they appear outside of a direct quote.For courtesy titles, use these on second reference or when specifically requested.Other acronyms and abbreviations are acceptable but not required (i.The context should govern such decisions.As a general rule, though, you should avoid what the Associated Press Stylebook calls “alphabet soup.” Consult the Associated Press Stylebook for specific cases.and directional cues when used with a numbered address.Always spell out other words such as alley, drive and road.If the street name or directional cue is used without a numbered address, it should be capitalized and spelled out.If a street name is a number, spell out First through 10th and higher.</p><p>Here are some examples of correctly formatted addresses: 101 N., Northwestern Avenue, South Ninth Street, 102 S.If the age is used as an adjective or as a substitute for a noun, then it should be hyphenated.Don’t use apostrophes when describing an age range.Books, Periodicals, Reference Works, and Other Types of Compositions Use quotation marks around the titles of books, songs, television shows, computer games, poems, lectures, speeches and works of art.Examples: Author Porter Shreve read from his new book, “When the White House Was Ours.</p><p>” They sang “The Star-Spangled Banner” before the game.Do not use quotations around the names of magazine, newspapers, the Bible or books that are catalogues of reference materials.Examples: The Washington Post first reported the story.Do not underline or italicize any of the above.</p><p>Dates, Months, Years, Days of the Week For dates and years, use figures.Do not use st, nd, rd, or th with dates, and use Arabic figures.Spell out the month unless it is used with a date.</p><p>When used with a date, abbreviate only the following months: Jan.</p><p>Commas are not necessary if only a year and month are given, but commas should be used to set off a year if the date, month and year are given.Use the letter s but not an apostrophe after the figures when expressing decades or centuries.Do, however, use an apostrophe before figures expressing a decade if numerals are left out.Purdue University was founded May 6, 1869.If you refer to an event that occurred the day prior to when the article will appear, do not use the word yesterday.Capitalize days of the week, but do not abbreviate.If an event occurs more than seven days before or after the current date, use the month and a figure.Datelines Newspapers use datelines when the information for a story is obtained outside the paper’s hometown or general area of service.</p><p>Datelines appear at the beginning of stories and include the name of the city in all capital letters, usually followed the state or territory in which the city is located.The Associated Press Stylebook lists 30 U.cities that do not need to be followed by the name of a state.Examples: DENVER – The Democratic National Convention began.– The Republican National Convention began.YOUNGSTOWN, Ohio – President Bush spoke to a group.</p><p>Dimensions When writing about height, weight or other dimensions, use figures and spell out words such as feet, miles, etc.Miles Use figures for any distances over 10.For any distances below 10, spell out the distance.</p><p>Examples: My flight covered 1,113 miles.Names Always use a person’s first and last name the first time they are mentioned in a story.Only use last names on second reference.unless they are part of a direct quotation or are needed to differentiate between people who have the same last name.Use roman numerals to describe wars and to show sequences for people.Examples: World War II, Pope John Paul II, Elizabeth II.For ordinal numbers, spell out first through 10th and above when describing order in time or location.</p><p>Some ordinal numbers, such as those indicating political or geographic order, should use figures in all cases.Examples: 3rd District Court, 9th ward.For cardinal numbers, consult individual entries in the Associated Press Stylebook.If no usage is specified, spell out numbers below 10 and use figures for numbers 10 and above.Example: The man had five children and 11 grandchildren.</p><p>For cents or amounts of $1 million or more, spell the words cents, million, billion, trillion etc.Punctuation Do not use commas before a conjunction in a simple series.</p><p>Example: In art class, they learned that red, yellow and blue are primary colors.His brothers are Tom, Joe, Frank and Pete.However, a comma should be used before the terminal conjunction in a complex series, if part of that series also contains a conjunction.Example: Purdue University's English Department offers doctoral majors in Literature, Second Language Studies, English Language and Linguistics, and Rhetoric and Composition.Commas and periods go within quotation marks.</p><p>Example: “I did nothing wrong,” he said.” States and Cities When the name of a state name appears in the body of a text, spell it out.When the name of a city and state are used together, the name of the state should be abbreviated (except for Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas and Utah).States should also be abbreviated when used as part of a short-form political affiliation.</p><p>The peace accord was signed in Dayton, Ohio.The wildfire began in California and moved east toward Carson City, NV.State abbreviations in AP style are the same as the two-letter ZIP code abbreviations.Here is how each state is abbreviated in AP style: State Abbreviations times The exact time when an event has occurred or will occur is unnecessary for most stories.</p><p>Of course, there are occasions when the time of day is important.In such cases, use figures, but spell out noon and :00.Examples: titles Generally, capitalize formal titles when they appear before a person’s name, but lowercase titles if they are informal, appear without a person’s name, follow a person’s name or are set off before a name by commas.<h2 id="7_introduction-to-journalism-richmond-county-schools">Introduction to journalism richmond county schools</h2><p>Also, lowercase adjectives that designate the status of a title.If a title is long, place it after the person’s name, or set it off with commas before the person’s name.</p><p>Examples: President Bush; President-elect Obama; Sen <strong>How to Write a Cover Letter That Gets You the Job Bookmarkable nbsp</strong>.Examples: President Bush; President-elect Obama; Sen.<h3></h3><p>Harry Reid; Evan Bayh, a senator from Indiana; the senior senator from Indiana, Dick Lugar; former President George H.Bush; Paul Schneider, deputy secretary of homeland security <strong>Need to buy college journalism presentation Freshman A4 (British/European) 99 pages / 27225 words British</strong>.Bush; Paul Schneider, deputy secretary of homeland security.technological terms BlackBerry, BlackBerrys How to Write a Cover Letter That Gets You the Job Bookmarkable Template + Examples Marketing | 9 Min Read No one seems to agree on cover letters.</p><p> How much time do you need to spend perfecting them? Do hiring managers even read them? Is it better to just send in your resume and call it a day? Now, I'm not in HR, but I've been approached by applicants who wondered whether their cover letter would actually be read.My answer is one not many of them wanted to hear: "Sometimes.Other times, you can get away with just sending in your resume -- like when you network your way into applying for a position.The truth is, you can't really predict on a case-by-case basis -- and you're better safe than sorry.</p><p>For the most part, having a cover letter will give you an upper hand in ways your resume doesn't.It allows you to show off your writing skills, provide details that you couldn't fit on your resume, demonstrate your passion, and show your willingness to put in as much time and effort as possible.But if your cover letter is sloppy, you might as well have not applied at all.Grammatical errors could mean your application is thrown in the trash.Using a generic "one-size-fits-all" cover letter -- especially if you forgot to change the name of the company -- will definitely hurt your chances.</p><p>So if you take the time to write a cover letter, take special care that it reflects you in the best possible light.Sample Cover LetterHere's an example of a great cover letter.The numbered sections are explained in more detail below.</p><p>1) Header The level of formality your header has will depend on the company you apply to.</p><p>If you're applying to a formal business, it's important to use a formal header to open your cover letter, like in the sample above. Put your address, the date, and the company's address. But if you're applying to a company that isn't as formal, you don't need to include yours and the company's addresses.2) Greeting Using "To Whom It May Concern" is okay, but you may want to take the time to research the name of the recruiter or hiring manager online.</p><p> If you do your research and aren't confident you found the right name, then you should definitely use the generic greeting -- but if you are sure, then it shows you put in the effort to find their name and it will catch the recruiter's eye.If you have the recruiter's name, do you greet them by their full name, or by their courtesy title (i.)? Similar to the header, it depends on the company's level of formality. If you're applying to a corporate business, you may want to consider using "Mr." If you're applying to a start-up or a business with a more casual culture, you can use "Jon Snaper," as shown in the example.</p><p>3) Paragraph 1: Introduction Your opening paragraph should, in 1-3 sentences, state why you're excited to apply and what makes you the perfect candidate.Get right to the point, and don't worry about explaining where you found the posting or who you know at the company.This isn't a place to go into detail about why you're a great candidate -- that's for the second paragraph.Here, simply list a few key reasons in one sentence to set up the rest of your letter.Keep in mind that the recruiter may cross-reference your cover letter with your resume, so make sure the two sync up.</p><p>4) Paragraph 2: Why You're a Great Fit for the Job Next, sell yourself and your experience by choosing one or two concrete examples that show why you're a great fit for the position.What did you do at a previous company that gave you relevant experience? Which projects have you worked on that would benefit the new company? How will your prior experience help this company grow? Stay humble in your explanation of credentials while still showing that you would be an asset to the team.Use this paragraph to show you're genuinely excited and interested in the position.5) Paragraph 3: Why the Company is a Great Fit for You While it's certainly important you're a good fit for the job, it's also important that the company is a good fit for you. "A cover letter typically describes why you're great for a company -- but how will you benefit from getting hired?" asks Emily MacIntyre, Senior Marketing Recruiter at HubSpot.</p><p> "We want to know why our company appeals to you, and how it will be a mutually beneficial working relationship." In the third paragraph, show you're serious about growing and developing your career at this new company.What impresses and excites you about the company? Is there something that you feel strongly about that aligns with the company's goals? For example, the candidate in the sample letter used this space to show his personal commitment to environmental causes aligns with the company's green initiatives.6) Strong Closing Paragraph Don't write off the final few sentences of your cover letter -- it's important to finish strong.Be straightforward about your interest and enthusiasm about the new position without coming off too strong.</p><p>Tell them you're available to talk about the opportunity at any time and include your phone number and email address.At this point, the ball is (rightly) in the recruiter's court to decide how to follow up.Last but certainly not least, thank them for their time and consideration.7) Formal Sign-Off Use a formal sign-off like "Best," "All the best," or "Sincerely," and finish by typing out your full name.5 Cover Letter Tips From the Experts While the sample from the previous section provides a basic framework for writing your cover letter, there are also several tips you can follow to help get your cover letter to stand out from the crowd.In order to craft a truly compelling cover letter, you need to show that you understand what the company does and what their pain points are.And that usually entails doing more than simply reading a job description.Start by soaking up all the information you can find on the company's website and blog, and then consider drilling down into the LinkedIn and Twitter accounts of executives and employees you could end up working with.</p><p>That research will help you fine-tune the messaging of your cover letter.Think about the culture of the organization you’re applying to.If it’s a creative agency, like a design shop, you might take more risks but if it’s a more conservative organization, like a bank, you may hold back.You might have heard that keeping your cover letter to one page is ideal.</p><p>But according to Forbes tech journalist Seth Porges, you may want to consider keeping it even shorter than a single page.Skip lengthy exposition and jump right into something juicy.One trick for helping you keep your cover letter concise: Avoid wasting real estate on information that the hiring manager already knows -- like the position you are applying for.Never ever, ever use the following phrase: 'My name is , and I am applying for the position as .</p><p>' They already know this, and you’ll sound inexperienced.Career coach Evelyn Salvador recommends using personal branding elements -- specifically a slogan, a testimonial, and/or a mission statement -- to help make your cover letter more attention-grabbing.As Salvador told : Each of these elements is optional, but it might just be the thing that makes your cover letter stand out from those of other candidates." Here's a quick run down on what those three elements are, and examples of what they might look like.</p><p>Slogan: A short summary of the value you'd bring to a company/role (e., "Using data to solve the problems of tomorrow.") Testimonial: An excerpt from a letter of recommendation, thank-you message from a customer, or other short quote that highlights your past performance (e., " Your name was prompt, professional, and responsive throughout the entire process.I can't wait to work with her again the future!") Mission Statement: Similar to a slogan, but focused more on the philosophy behind why you do what you do, and why you want to accomplish what you want to accomplish (e., "The key to customer happiness is creating products that people love.My mission is to produce the most lovable products on the planet.</p><p>Some folks have a knack for seamlessly integrating humor into their writing.If you are one of those people, and you've done your research and know the company/hiring manager would appreciate a little humor, by all means, include it in your cover letter.Humor can often fall flat or sound self-regarding." Instead of using humor to grab a reader's attention, Lees recommends that you write something "direct and dynamic, such as ‘Before you read any further, let me draw your attention to two reasons why you might want to hire me….</p><p>’" Cover Letter Examples That Enhance Any Resume If you follow the tips in the previous section, the cover letter you end up crafting will invariably be unique.That being said, looking at examples of successful cover letters that other jobs applicants have created can help give you ideas for improving your own letter.Here are three examples of stellar cover letters that you can "steal" from: 1) The Creative Cover Letter This cover letter example comes from The Guardian.The idea behind it: Produce a letter that successfully balances creativity with a solid understanding of what the job in question entails.2) The Straight-to-the-Point Cover Letter Harvard Business Review contributor David Silverman hailed the following example as "The Best Cover Letter I Ever Received.</p><p>" For context, Silverman believes there are only a handful of times when writing a cover letter is actually necessary, namely 1) when you know the name of the hiring manager, 2) when you know something about what the job requires, and 3) when you've been referred to the job personally.Under those circumstances, a straight-the-point cover letter like the one below could be your best bet. 3) The Marketing-Specific Cover Letter Remember: Writing a cover letter is easier said than done.Don't hesitate to spend a lot of time writing and editing it.Or, ask a friend or family member to read it over and give you feedback.</p><p>If the recruiter does end up reading it, you'll be thankful you did.Have any other cover letter writing tips you'd like to share? 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