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Proposal Guidelines Harvard University Press publishes thoughtful books for both scholars and educated general readers in history, philosophy, literature, classics, religion, law, economics, public policy, physical and life sciences, technology, history of science, behavioral sciences, and education, along with reference works in a wide range of fields.All HUP books are published in English, with translation rights licensed to publishers in other countries.
We do not publish original fiction, original poetry, religious inspiration or revelation, cookbooks, guidebooks, children’s books, art and photography books, Festschriften, conference volumes, unrevised dissertations, or autobiographies Global Teams That Work Harvard Business Review.We do not publish original fiction, original poetry, religious inspiration or revelation, cookbooks, guidebooks, children’s books, art and photography books, Festschriften, conference volumes, unrevised dissertations, or autobiographies.
What Should Be in a Proposal? Publishing involves a matching process between the particular strengths and styles of a manuscript and those of a publisher.Your proposal should give our editors and marketing staff a clear and detailed idea of what your book will be about 5 Sep 2017 - 2018 Call For. Convention Proposals. San Francisco, California ▫ August 9–12, 2018. All proposals must be submitted via the APA website: Presidential addresses. ▫ Skill-building sessions. ▫ Symposia. Not Eligible for CE. Review. ▫ Business meetings. ▫ Committee meetings. ▫ Conversation hours..Your proposal should give our editors and marketing staff a clear and detailed idea of what your book will be about.The proposal should tell the Press staff why you are writing this particular book at this particular time in your own career, and more important, in the development of your field 5 Sep 2017 - 2018 Call For. Convention Proposals. San Francisco, California ▫ August 9–12, 2018. All proposals must be submitted via the APA website: Presidential addresses. ▫ Skill-building sessions. ▫ Symposia. Not Eligible for CE. Review. ▫ Business meetings. ▫ Committee meetings. ▫ Conversation hours..The proposal should tell the Press staff why you are writing this particular book at this particular time in your own career, and more important, in the development of your field.Questions to consider as you prepare a book proposal: What problems are you setting out to solve? What confusions do you wish to clarify? What previously unknown or unfortunately neglected story are you planning to tell? How is this book different from all other books? Why does that matter? To whom? Possible audiences are as variable as publishers.
Consider: Is your book for specialists in your field? Does your book focus on a particular area within a larger field? Is it a book that students might use, and if so, students at what level? Is it a “trade” book? That is, one intended for general readers, those without specialized knowledge in your area? Whatever your answer, consider carefully the kind of approach, terminology, level of explanation, and scholarly apparatus that your book will need to make it most compelling for your ideal reader.Successful proposals usually include: A narrative description of the proposed book’s themes, arguments, goals, place in the literature, and expected audience.State your argument concisely and clearly.A comparison of the proposed book to other books now available that are intended for the audience you seek.
(If you are writing a specialized monograph, it is not especially illuminating to compare it to a popularized treatment of the same subject.
) A summary of your own professional experience, past publications, and relevant research, aimed at explaining why you are the right author for the book you intend to write.An annotated An estimate of the probable length of the book, the illustrations (if any) that you wish to include, the time it will take you to write it, and any possible complicating factors.Full chapters should not be sent with the initial proposal, but if some have already been written, say so in your cover letter.You should also note whether any chapters, or substantive sections of chapters, have been previously published.For more advice, we recommend: Who Reads a Proposal? Proposals are most likely to be read quickly when they are addressed (by name) to the appropriate acquisitions editor.
Read more about our editors’ areas of interest and, if necessary, contact us to determine which editor would be most suited to your work.Editors may decline to pursue a proposed book.They may encourage the author to provide more information or send in the chapters that are already written.They may consult with outside reviewers—and they will certainly confer with other editors and members of the Press staff—before making any formal commitment.Bear in mind, then, that your proposal may be read not only by editors but by specialists in marketing and production, and answer any questions they may have (Why are 50 b/w photographs necessary?) as clearly as you can.
Where Should a Proposal Be Sent? Please mark all proposals to the attention of the Editorial Department and send them by email or mail to: Harvard University Press Stay Posted Now Available: The digital Loeb Classical Library ( ) extends the founding mission of James Loeb with an interconnected, fully searchable, perpetually growing virtual library of all that is important in Greek and Latin literature.Booksellers and Librarians: Our recent titles are available via Edelweiss.Off the Page: Visit our multimedia page for video about recent projects and interviews with HUP authors.Join Our Mailing List:Subscribe to receive information about forthcoming books, seasonal catalogs, and more, in newsletters tailored to your interests.Blog In the spring of 2016 we published a major new edition of Emily Dickinson’s verse, the only extant volume of Dickinson’s complete poems that distinguishes between those she delicately preserved in her storied fascicles and those she treated with somewhat less care.
Painstakingly edited by Dickinson scholar Cristanne Miller, the book is also the first annotated reading edition of Dickinson’s poems, as well as the first edition to include the alternative words and phrases Dickinson wrote on the pages of many of the poems she retained.To have produced such a lovely and invaluable resource is its own reward, but we’re nonetheless extremely pleased to share that the Modern Language Assoc… Global Teams That Work Executive Summary Many companies today rely on employees around the world, leveraging their diversity and local expertise to gain a competitive edge.However, geographically dispersed teams face a big challenge: Physical separation and cultural differences can create social distance, or a lack of emotional connection, that leads to misunderstandings and mistrust.To help global team leaders manage effectively, the author shares her SPLIT framework for mitigating social distance.If a team is made up of groups with different views about their relative power, the leader should connect frequently with those who are farthest away and emphasize unity.Team members must be active cultural learners and teachers to understand one another’s identity and avoid misinterpreting behaviors.When choosing between videoconferencing, e-mail, and other modes of communication, leaders should ask themselves if real-time conversation is desirable, if their message needs reinforcement, and if they are opting for the technology they want others to use.
HBR Reprint R1510D The Problem When teams consist of people from different cultures working apart from one another in different locations, social distance—or a lack of emotional connection—can cause miscommunication, misunderstanding, and distrust.The Solution The leaders of global teams can improve the workings of their groups by using the author’s SPLIT framework to identify and address five sources of social distance: structure, process, language, identity, and technology.To succeed in the global economy today, more and more companies are relying on a geographically dispersed workforce.They build teams that offer the best functional expertise from around the world, combined with deep, local knowledge of the most promising markets.They draw on the benefits of international diversity, bringing together people from many cultures with varied work experiences and different perspectives on strategic and organizational challenges.
All this helps multinational companies compete in the current business environment.But managers who actually lead global teams are up against stiff challenges.Creating successful work groups is hard enough when everyone is local and people share the same office space.But when team members come from different countries and functional backgrounds and are working in different locations, communication can rapidly deteriorate, misunderstanding can ensue, and cooperation can degenerate into distrust.Preventing this vicious dynamic from taking place has been a focus of my research, teaching, and consulting for more than 15 years.
I have conducted dozens of studies and heard from countless executives and managers about misunderstandings within the global teams they have joined or led, sometimes with costly consequences.But I have also encountered teams that have produced remarkable innovations, creating millions of dollars in value for their customers and shareholders.
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Further Reading One basic difference between global teams that work and those that don’t lies in the level of social distance—the degree of emotional connection among team members.When people on a team all work in the same place, the level of social distance is usually low.Even if they come from different backgrounds, people can interact formally and informally, align, and build trust Self-completion questionnaires are good for collecting data on relatively simple topics, and for gaining a general overview of an issue. Questionnaires need to Religion and Conflict Research Paper, Custom Essays and Term Papers Writing on Religion. Companies best website to buy research papers write cavinkare .
Even if they come from different backgrounds, people can interact formally and informally, align, and build trust.
They arrive at a common understanding of what certain behaviors mean, and they feel close and congenial, which fosters good teamwork.Coworkers who are geographically separated, however, can’t easily connect and align, so they experience high levels of social distance and struggle to develop effective interactions.Mitigating social distance therefore becomes the primary management challenge for the global team leader Help me do my custom religion research proposal double spaced American Premium 118 pages / 32450 words.Mitigating social distance therefore becomes the primary management challenge for the global team leader.To help in this task, I have developed and tested a framework for identifying and successfully managing social distance elrubius.es/case-study/who-can-do-my-college-anatomy-case-study-sophomore-cbe-a4-british-european-high-quality.
To help in this task, I have developed and tested a framework for identifying and successfully managing social distance.
It is called the SPLIT framework, reflecting its five components: structure, process, language, identity, and technology—each of which can be a source of social distance who can do my college anatomy case study Sophomore CBE A4 (British/European).
It is called the SPLIT framework, reflecting its five components: structure, process, language, identity, and technology—each of which can be a source of social distance.
In the following pages I explain how each can lead to team dysfunction and describe how smart leaders can fix problems that occur—or prevent them from happening in the first place.Structure and the Perception of Power In the context of global teams, the structural factors determining social distance are the location and number of sites where team members are based and the number of employees who work at each site.The fundamental issue here is the perception of power.If most team members are located in Germany, for instance, with two or three in the United States and in South Africa, there may be a sense that the German members have more power.This imbalance sets up a negative dynamic.
People in the larger (majority) group may feel resentment toward the minority group, believing that the latter will try to get away with contributing less than its fair share.Meanwhile, those in the minority group may believe that the majority is usurping what little power and voice they have.The situation is exacerbated when the leader is at the site with the most people or the one closest to company headquarters: Team members at that site tend to ignore the needs and contributions of their colleagues at other locations.This dynamic can occur even when everyone is in the same country: The five people working in, say, Beijing may have a strong allegiance to one another and a habit of shutting out their two colleagues in Shanghai.When geographically dispersed team members perceive a power imbalance, they often come to feel that there are in-groups and out-groups.
Consider the case of a global marketing team for a U.-based multinational pharmaceutical company.The leader and the core strategy group for the Americas worked in the company’s Boston-area headquarters.A smaller group in London and a single individual in Moscow focused on the markets in Europe.
Three other team members, who split their time between Singapore and Tokyo, were responsible for strategy in Asia.The way that each group perceived its situation is illustrated in the exhibit below.To correct perceived power imbalances between different groups, a leader needs to get three key messages across: Who we are.The team is a single entity, even though individual members may be very different from one another.The leader should encourage sensitivity to differences but look for ways to bridge them and build unity.
Tariq, a 33-year-old rising star in a global firm, was assigned to lead a 68-person division whose members hailed from 27 countries, spoke 18 languages, and ranged in age from 22 to 61.During the two years before he took charge, the group’s performance had been in a precipitous decline and employee satisfaction had plunged.Tariq saw that the team had fractured into subgroups according to location and language.To bring people back together, he introduced a team motto (“We are different yet one”), created opportunities for employees to talk about their cultures, and instituted a zero-tolerance policy for displays of cultural insensitivity.It’s important to remind team members that they share a common purpose and to direct their energy toward business-unit or corporate goals.The leader should periodically highlight how everyone’s work fits into the company’s overall strategy and advances its position in the market.For instance, during a weekly conference call, a global team leader might review the group’s performance relative to company objectives.She might also discuss the level of collective focus and sharpness the team needs in order to fend off competitors.Team members located far from the leader require frequent contact with him or her.A brief phone call or e‑mail can make all the difference in conveying that their contributions matter.For instance, one manager in Dallas, Texas, inherited a large group in India as part of an acquisition.He made it a point to involve those employees in important decisions, contact them frequently to discuss ongoing projects, and thank them for good work.He even called team members personally to give them their birthdays off.
His team appreciated his attention and became more cohesive as a result.Process and the Importance of Empathy It almost goes without saying that empathy helps reduce social distance.If colleagues can talk informally around a watercooler—whether about work or about personal matters—they are more likely to develop an empathy that helps them interact productively in more-formal contexts.Because geographically dispersed team members lack regular face time, they are less likely to have a sense of mutual understanding.To foster this, global team leaders need to make sure they build the following “deliberate moments” into the process for meeting virtually: Feedback on routine interactions.
Members of global teams may unwittingly send the wrong signals with their everyday behavior.
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Julie, a French chemical engineer, and her teammates in Marseille checked and responded to e‑mails only first thing in the morning, to ensure an uninterrupted workday.They had no idea that this practice was routinely adding an overnight delay to correspondence with their American colleagues and contributing to mistrust.It was not until Julie visited the team’s offices in California that the French group realized there was a problem Girl interrupted mental illness essay the big short summary cover letter paragraph 1 55 successful harvard law essays pdf word proposal template free. Writing paper help holiday let business plan essay save planet earth how to write a chicago style essay case study primary school. Ozone layer ppt presentation gcse .It was not until Julie visited the team’s offices in California that the French group realized there was a problem.
Of course, face-to-face visits are not the only way to acquire such learning.
Remote team members can also use the phone, e‑mail, or even videoconferencing to check in with one another and ask how the collaboration is going Best Price For Research Proposal - Best in UK, Write My Essay For Cash. Interesting people to do a research paper on write my business essay dissertation interview transcription sample of good resume for fresh graduate. Free flash presentation templates best write my paper website best write my paper website..Remote team members can also use the phone, e‑mail, or even videoconferencing to check in with one another and ask how the collaboration is going.The point is that leaders and members of global teams must actively elicit this kind of “reflected knowledge,” or awareness of how others see them.Think back to your last face-to-face meeting.
During the first few minutes before the official discussion began, what was the atmosphere like? Were people comparing notes on the weather, their kids, that new restaurant in town? Unstructured communication like this is positive, because it allows for the organic unfolding of processes that must occur in all business dealings—sharing knowledge, coordinating and monitoring interactions, and building relationships.
Even when people are spread all over the world, small talk is still a powerful way to promote trust.So when planning your team’s call-in meetings, factor in five minutes for light conversation before business gets under way.Especially during the first meetings, take the lead in initiating informal discussions about work and nonwork matters that allow team members to get to know their distant counterparts.In particular, encourage people to be open about constraints they face outside the project, even if those aren’t directly linked to the matter at hand.Leaders should encourage disagreement both about the team’s tasks and about the process by which the tasks get done.The challenge, of course, is to take the heat out of the debate.Framing meetings as brainstorming opportunities lowers the risk that people will feel pressed to choose between sides.Instead, they will see an invitation to evaluate agenda items and contribute their ideas.As the leader, model the act of questioning to get to the heart of things.
Solicit each team member’s views on each topic you discuss, starting with those who have the least status or experience with the group so that they don’t feel intimidated by others’ comments.This may initially seem like a waste of time, but if you seek opinions up front, you may make better decisions and get buy-in from more people.A software developer in Istanbul kept silent in a team meeting in order to avoid conflict, even though he questioned his colleagues’ design of a particular feature.He had good reasons to oppose their decision, but his team leader did not brook disagreement, and the developer did not want to damage his own position.However, four weeks into the project, the team ran into the very problems that the developer had seen coming.
Language and the Fluency Gap Good communication among coworkers drives effective knowledge sharing, decision making, coordination, and, ultimately, performance results (see also “What’s Your Language Strategy?” by Tsedal Neeley and Robert Steven Kaplan, HBR, September 2014).But in global teams, varying levels of fluency with the chosen common language are inevitable—and likely to heighten social distance.The team members who can communicate best in the organization’s lingua franca (usually English) often exert the most influence, while those who are less fluent often become inhibited and withdraw.Mitigating these effects typically involves insisting that all team members respect three rules for communicating in meetings: Dial down dominance.Strong speakers must agree to slow down their speaking pace and use fewer idioms, slang terms, and esoteric cultural references when addressing the group.
They should limit the number of comments they make within a set time frame, depending on the pace of the meeting and the subject matter.They should actively seek confirmation that they’ve been understood, and they should practice active listening by rephrasing others’ statements for clarification or emphasis.Find this and other HBR graphics in our Visual Library Dial up engagement.Less fluent speakers should monitor the frequency of their responses in meetings to ensure that they are contributing.In some cases, it’s even worth asking them to set goals for the number of comments they make within a given period.
Don’t let them use their own language and have a teammate translate, because that can alienate others.As with fluent speakers, team members who are less proficient in the language must always confirm that they have been understood.Encourage them to routinely ask if others are following them.Similarly, when listening, they should be empowered to say they have not understood something.It can be tough for nonnative speakers to make this leap, yet doing so keeps them from being marginalized.
Balance participation to ensure inclusion.Getting commitments to good speaking behavior is the easy part; making the behavior happen will require active management.Global team leaders must keep track of who is and isn’t contributing and deliberately solicit participation from less fluent speakers.Sometimes it may also be necessary to get dominant-language speakers to dial down to ensure that the proposals and perspectives of less fluent speakers are heard.The leader of a global team based in Dubai required all his reports to post the three communication rules in their cubicles.
Soon he noted that one heavily accented European team member began contributing to discussions for the first time since joining the group 17 months earlier.The rules had given this person the license, opportunity, and responsibility to speak up.As a leader, you could try the same tactics with your own team, distributing copies of the exhibit “Rules of Engagement for Team Meetings.” Identity and the Mismatch of Perceptions Global teams work most smoothly when members “get” where their colleagues are coming from.
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However, deciphering someone’s identity and finding ways to relate is far from simple.
People define themselves in terms of a multitude of variables—age, gender, nationality, ethnicity, religion, occupation, political ties, and so forth.And although behavior can be revealing, particular behaviors may signify different things depending on the individual’s identity 2018 Call For Convention Proposals American Psychological nbsp.And although behavior can be revealing, particular behaviors may signify different things depending on the individual’s identity.
For example, someone in North America who looks you squarely in the eye may project confidence and honesty, but in other parts of the world, direct eye contact might be perceived as rude or threatening.Misunderstandings such as this are a major source of social distance and distrust, and global team leaders have to raise everyone’s awareness of them 10 Feb 2010 - He argued that the primary goal of a Harvard education is the pursuit of truth through rational inquiry, and that religion has no place in that. In the end, Menand & Co. backed down, and the matter never made it to a vote. A more brutal fight was put off for another day. But that's a pity—for Harvard, its students, .Misunderstandings such as this are a major source of social distance and distrust, and global team leaders have to raise everyone’s awareness of them.This involves mutual learning and teaching 10 Feb 2010 - He argued that the primary goal of a Harvard education is the pursuit of truth through rational inquiry, and that religion has no place in that. In the end, Menand & Co. backed down, and the matter never made it to a vote. A more brutal fight was put off for another day. But that's a pity—for Harvard, its students, .
This involves mutual learning and teaching.
When adapting to a new cultural environment, a savvy leader will avoid making assumptions about what behaviors mean.In America, someone who says, “Yes, I can do this” likely means she is willing and able to do what you asked.
In India, however, the same statement may simply signal that she wants to try—not that she’s confident of success.
Before drawing conclusions, therefore, ask a lot of questions.In the example just described, you might probe to see if the team member anticipates any challenges or needs additional resources.Asking for this information may yield greater insight into how the person truly feels about accomplishing the task.The give-and-take of asking questions and providing answers establishes two-way communication between the leader and team members.And if a leader regularly solicits input, acting as a student rather than an expert with hidden knowledge, he empowers others on the team, leading them to participate more willingly and effectively.
A non-Mandarin-speaking manager in China relied heavily on his local staff during meetings with clients in order to better understand clients’ perceptions of the interactions and to gauge the appropriateness of his own behavior.His team members began to see themselves as essential to the development of client relationships and felt valued, which motivated them to perform at even higher levels.In this model, everyone is a teacher and a learner, which enables people to step out of their traditional roles.Team members take on more responsibility for the development of the team as a whole.Leaders learn to see themselves as unfinished and are thus more likely to adjust their style to reflect the team’s needs.
They instruct but they also facilitate, helping team members to parse their observations and understand one another’s true identities.Consider the experience of Daniel, the leader of a recently formed multinational team spread over four continents.During a conference call, he asked people to discuss a particular strategy for reaching a new market in a challenging location.This was the first time he had raised a topic on which there was a range of opinion.
Daniel observed that Theo, a member of the Israeli team, regularly interrupted Angela, a member of the Buenos Aires team, and their ideas were at odds.Although tempted to jump in and play referee, Daniel held back.To his surprise, neither Theo nor Angela got frustrated.They went back and forth, bolstering their positions by referencing typical business practices and outcomes in their respective countries, but they stayed committed to reaching a group consensus.At the meeting’s end, Daniel shared his observations with the team, addressing not only the content of the discussion, but also the manner in which it took place.
“Theo and Angela,” he said, “when you began to hash out your ideas, I was concerned that both of you might have felt you weren’t being heard or weren’t getting a chance to fully express your thoughts.But now you both seem satisfied that you were able to make your arguments, articulate cultural perspectives, and help us decide on our next steps.Is that true?” Theo and Angela affirmed Daniel’s observations and provided an additional contextual detail: Six months earlier they had worked together on another project—an experience that allowed them to establish their own style of relating to each other.Their ability to acknowledge and navigate their cultural differences was beneficial to everyone on the team.Not only did it help move their work forward, but it showed that conflict does not have to create social distance.
And Daniel gained more information about Theo and Angela, which would help him manage the team more effectively in the future.Technology and the Connection Challenge The modes of communication used by global teams must be carefully considered, because the technologies can both reduce and increase social distance.Videoconferencing, for instance, allows rich communication in which both context and emotion can be perceived.E‑mail offers greater ease and efficiency but lacks contextual cues.In making decisions about which technology to use, a leader must ask the following: Should communication be instant? Teleconferencing and videoconferencing enable real-time (instant) conversations.
E‑mail and certain social media formats require users to wait for the other party to respond.Choosing between instant and delayed forms of communication can be especially challenging for global teams.For example, when a team spans multiple time zones, a telephone call may not be convenient for everyone.-based multinational put it this way: “I have three or four days per week when I have a conference call with global executives.In most cases, it starts at 9:00 or 10:00 in the night.If we can take the conference call in the daytime, it’s much easier for me.But we are in the Far East, and headquarters is in the United States, so we have to make the best of it.” Instant technologies are valuable when leaders need to persuade others to adopt their viewpoint.
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But if they simply want to share information, then delayed methods such as e‑mail are simpler, more efficient, and less disruptive to people’s lives.Leaders must also consider the team’s interpersonal dynamics.If the team has a history of conflict, technology choices that limit the opportunities for real-time emotional exchanges may yield the best results Buy college research proposal religion US Letter Size Academic MLA Undergraduate.If the team has a history of conflict, technology choices that limit the opportunities for real-time emotional exchanges may yield the best results.
In general, the evidence suggests that most companies overrely on delayed communication.A recent Forrester survey of nearly 10,000 information workers in 17 countries showed that 94% of employees report using e‑mail, but only 33% ever participate in desktop videoconferencing (with apps such as Skype and Viber), and a mere 25% use room-based videoconferencing.
These numbers will surely change over time, as the tools evolve and users become more comfortable with them, but leaders need to choose their format carefully: instant or delayed Who can do a college research proposal religion single spaced 24 hours 85 pages / 23375 words Platinum.These numbers will surely change over time, as the tools evolve and users become more comfortable with them, but leaders need to choose their format carefully: instant or delayed.Do I need to reinforce the message? Savvy leaders will communicate through multiple platforms to ensure that messages are understood and remembered.For example, if a manager electronically assigns one of her team members a task by entering notes into a daily work log, she may then follow up with a text or a face-to-face chat to ensure that the team member saw the request and recognized its urgency.Redundant communication is also effective for leaders who are concerned about convincing others that their message is important.
Greg, for instance, a project manager in a medical devices organization, found that his team was falling behind on the development of a product.
He called an emergency meeting to discuss the issues and explain new corporate protocols for releasing new products, which he felt would bring the project back on track.Team members will follow the leader’s example in using communication technology.During this initial meeting, he listened to people’s concerns and addressed their questions in real time.Although he felt he had communicated his position clearly and obtained the necessary verbal buy-in, he followed up the meeting by sending a carefully drafted e‑mail to all the attendees, reiterating the agreed-upon changes and asking for everyone’s electronic sign-off.This redundant communication helped reinforce acceptance of his ideas and increased the likelihood that his colleagues would actually implement the new protocols.
Am I leading by example? Team members very quickly pick up on the leader’s personal preferences regarding communication technology.A leader who wants to encourage people to videoconference should communicate this way herself.If she wants employees to pick up the phone and speak to one another, she had better be a frequent user of the phone.And if she wants team members to respond quickly to e‑mails, she needs to set the example.Flexibility and appreciation for diversity are at the heart of managing a global team.
Leaders must expect problems and patterns to change or repeat themselves as teams shift, disband, and regroup.But there is at least one constant: To manage social distance effectively and maximize the talents and engagement of team members, leaders must stay attentive to all five of the SPLIT dimensions.Decisions about structure create opportunities for good process, which can mitigate difficulties caused by language differences and identity issues.If leaders act on these fronts, while marshaling technology to improve communication among geographically dispersed colleagues, social distance is sure to shrink, not expand.When that happens, teams can become truly representative of the “global village”—not just because of their international makeup, but also because their members feel mutual trust and a sense of kinship.
They can then embrace and practice the kind of innovative, respectful, and groundbreaking interactions that drive the best ideas forward.A version of this article appeared in the October 2015 issue (pp.Tsedal Neeley is an associate professor in the Organizational Behavior unit at the Harvard Business School and the founder of the consulting firm Global Matters.She is the author of Why Harvard Students Should Study More Religion Share It doesn't take a degree from Harvard to see that in today's world, a person needs to know something about religion.
The conflicts between the Israelis and the Palestinians; between Christians, Muslims, and animists in Africa; between religious conservatives and progressives at home over abortion and gay marriage—all these relate, if indirectly, to what rival groups believe about God and scripture.Any resolution of these conflicts will have to come from people who understand how religious belief and practice influence our world: why, in particular, believers see some things as worth fighting and dying for.On the Harvard campus—where the next generation of aspiring leaders is currently beginning the spring term—the importance of religion goes without saying."Kids need to know the difference between a Sunni and a Shia," is something you hear a lot.But in practice, the Harvard faculty cannot cope with religion.
It cannot agree on who should teach it, how it should be taught, and how much value to give it compared with economics, biology, literature, and all the other subjects considered vital to an undergraduate education.This question of how much religion to teach led to a bitter fight when the faculty last discussed curriculum reform, in 2006.Louis Menand, the Pulitzer Prize–winning literary critic and English professor, together with a small group of colleagues tasked with revising Harvard's core curriculum, made the case that undergraduate students should be required to take at least one course in a category called Reason and Faith.These would explore big issues in religion: intelligent design, debates within and around Islam, and a history of American faith, for example.Steven Pinker, the evolutionary psychologist, led the case against a religion requirement.
He argued that the primary goal of a Harvard education is the pursuit of truth through rational inquiry, and that religion has no place in that.backed down, and the matter never made it to a vote.A more brutal fight was put off for another day.But that's a pity—for Harvard, its students, and the rest of us who need leaders better informed about faith and the motivations of the faithful.
Harvard may or may not be the pinnacle of higher learning in the world, but because it is Harvard, it reflects—for better or worse—the priorities of the nation's intellectual set.To decline to grapple head-on with the role of religion in a liberal-arts education, even as debates over faith and reason rage on blogs, and as publishers churn out books defending and attacking religious belief, is at best timid and at worst self-defeating.Veritas was only officially adopted as its motto in 1843; until then it had been Christo et Ecclesiae ("For Christ and the Church").
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While it's true that other Ivy League colleges don't require undergrads to take religion (with the exception of Columbia, where readings in the mandatory Contemporary Civilization course include selections from Exodus, the Book of Matthew, Saint Augustine, and the Quran), it's fair to say that the study of religion at Harvard is uniquely dysfunctional.Religion at Harvard doesn't even merit its own department.
Professors who teach religion classes generally belong to other departments—anthropology, say, or Near Eastern languages Why Harvard Students Should Study More Religion Newsweek.Professors who teach religion classes generally belong to other departments—anthropology, say, or Near Eastern languages.
A Committee on the Study of Religion oversees the courses, but it can't hire and fire, and it can't grant tenure.Diana Eck, the top scholar of world religions who runs the program, argues that its second-class status prevents it from drawing the biggest talent to campus—and, as a result, the most gifted students.There are great teachers of religion at Harvard, she says, but because they're members of other departments, their reputations don't enhance the religious-studies program A framework for bridging social distance. In the context of global teams, the structural factors determining social distance are the location and number of sites where team members are based and the To correct perceived power imbalances between different groups, a leader needs to get three key messages across: .There are great teachers of religion at Harvard, she says, but because they're members of other departments, their reputations don't enhance the religious-studies program.Eck mentions Emory, Oberlin, Swarthmore, Smith, Carleton, and Macalester as places where religion departments thrive.
Harvard likes to regard itself as the best of the best.Yet even public universities—the University of Texas, Arizona State, and Indiana University, for example—generate more excitement around the subject of religion than Harvard does.A new religious-studies program at the University of Minnesota was launched last year; already it has more than 50 majors."I have just been amazed at the breadth of the embrace that we have received here," says Jeanne Kilde, a professor of classics and Near Eastern studies who runs the program.
Last year 33 Harvard undergrads chose to major in religion, compared with 704 in economics, 408 in government, 217 in history, and 45 in classics.
"Hist and Lit," another boutique major without an official department, had 155 majors.In religious studies, says Eck, "we patch things together the best we can." Undergraduates with more than a passing interest in religion are pointed to the Divinity School, half a mile away from Harvard Yard, where they can take graduate-level courses about belief from people who are, by tradition, believers.This separation of "faith" from "reason" occurred in the early part of the 19th century, when the American university evolved into a secular place.Even now, in an era when a presidential candidate cannot get elected without a convincing "faith narrative," the scholars who study belief continue to reside in the Divinity School, and when the subject of religion comes up, the scholars on the Faculty of Arts and Sciences sniff at its seriousness.
Such general disdain, combined with the bureaucratic awkwardness of navigating between the Divinity School and the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, finally caused American Catholicism scholar Robert Orsi, who had been at Harvard for seven years, to flee for Northwestern University in 2007."There is such a thing as a critical study of religion," he says."It is a very important and interesting part of the human story, and people are teaching it at small colleges and state universities across America." In dozens of phone calls and several trips to the Harvard campus, I tried to understand the faculty's anxiety about religion.The facile explanation is that more than a third of elite university professors are nonreligious, a dramatically higher percentage than the population at large.
But both believing and nonbelieving scholars clearly can teach about religion in a secular setting without crossing the line into proselytizing.And wouldn't students benefit from having their assumptions challenged in a rigorous way? (Fluency in religious history and texts, in fact, is the sharpest weapon against fundamentalism, as Sam Harris demonstrates in his polemic The End of Faith.) "My colleagues fear that taking religion seriously would undermine everything a great university stands for," the Rev.Peter Gomes, Harvard's chaplain and a professor of Christian history, told me."I think that's ungrounded, but there it is.
" Steven Pinker says his main objection to the 2006 proposal that students be required to take a course in a Reason and Faith category was that it seemed to make reason and faith equal paths to truth."I very, very, very much do not want to go on the record as suggesting that people should not know about religion," he told me."But reason and faith are not yin and yang.Reason is what the university should be in the business of fostering.
" Pinker is a public intellectual, a celebrity on the Harvard campus, the kind of teacher who can draw 400 students into a lecture hall and who elicits star-struck stares in the Yard.His specialty is the evolution of language, but all his work, from The Language Instinct to The Blank Slate (a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize), coheres under the broad notion that a scientific, rational world view is the highest achievement of the human mind.As his wife, the novelist Rebecca Goldstein, put it to him on a day I visited them on Cape Cod, Mass., "All forms of irrationality irk you, but religion is the form of irrationality that irks you most." In Pinker's view, human progress is an evolution away from superstition, witchcraft, and idol worship—that is, religion—and toward something like a Scandinavian austerity and secularism.
(Pinker is one of those intellectuals who speak frequently about how sensible things are in Europe; one suppresses the urge to remind him of the Muslim riots in the Paris and London suburbs.) A university education is our greatest weapon in the battle against our natural stupidity, he said in a recent speech."We don't kill virgins on an altar, because we know that it would not, in fact, propitiate an angry god and alleviate misfortune on earth." That insistence on the backwardness of religion is why, on a warm October afternoon in 2006, at a small faculty luncheon at a Cambridge, Mass., bistro called Sandrine's, Pinker launched his bomb.
The topic of the meeting was curriculum reform, but Pinker homed in on religion, declaring that requiring students to take a course in a Reason and Faith category would be like requiring them to take a course in Astronomy and Astrology."Faith," he said, "is believing in something without good reasons to do so.It has no place in anything but a religious institution, and our society has no shortage of these." His remarks that day ran in The Crimson and were picked up by the national press."For myself," remembers Derek Bok, who was Harvard's acting president at the time, "that was one of the less thoughtful remarks that I heard.
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This was a rhetorical flourish he threw in there." Menand—who was co-chair of the curriculum-reform committee and had come to think that Reason and Faith was "a really great idea"—was not surprised by Pinker's remarks.He does not see himself as an advocate for the study of religion per se, but he does want students to engage fully with the messiness and contradiction of clashing ideas February 25, 2013. The Mela is a potent forum for interdisciplinary research in a number of complementary fields. Public health, pilgrimage and religious studies, design and planning, business, engineering, governance, and technology converge at this festival, producing a complex systems and networks that has yet to be .
He does not see himself as an advocate for the study of religion per se, but he does want students to engage fully with the messiness and contradiction of clashing ideas.
He and Pinker have been intellectual rivals since 2002, when he eviscerated Pinker's book The Blank Slate in The New Yorker.Both now characterize their relationship as collegial Proposal Guidelines. Harvard University Press publishes thoughtful books for both scholars and educated general readers in history, philosophy, literature, classics, religion, law, economics, public policy, physical and life sciences, technology, history of science, behavioral sciences, and education, along with reference .Both now characterize their relationship as collegial.) Menand believes that Pinker's "scientistic" world view—that is, submitting everything, from painting to romantic love to empirical measurement—leads to a narrow and sometimes wrongheaded understanding of things Proposal Guidelines. Harvard University Press publishes thoughtful books for both scholars and educated general readers in history, philosophy, literature, classics, religion, law, economics, public policy, physical and life sciences, technology, history of science, behavioral sciences, and education, along with reference .) Menand believes that Pinker's "scientistic" world view—that is, submitting everything, from painting to romantic love to empirical measurement—leads to a narrow and sometimes wrongheaded understanding of things.Neither Menand nor anyone else is suggesting, in any case, that Harvard elevate God's Truth over the progress made through enlightened rational inquiry.
But science isn't the only—or even always the best—tool for understanding human experience, and to hold science up as the One and Only Truth is a kind of fundamentalism in itself .But science isn't the only—or even always the best—tool for understanding human experience, and to hold science up as the One and Only Truth is a kind of fundamentalism in itself.Furthermore, as Menand points out, scientific truths shift over time, dependent as they are on history and culture: just look, he says, at the recent "discovery" of "behavioral economics." A humanist, he cracks, would never have expected people's saving and spending habits to be anything but irrational.For Harvard—or any liberal-arts college—placing value on the study of religion poses no threat to secularism, science, or rationality.
As Menand puts it, "We teach stuff we don't believe in all the time.
" Menand's strongest argument, though, centers on relevance.In his new book, The Marketplace of Ideas: Reform and Resistance in the American University, he takes the modern university to task for its narrowness.Professors exist in their slim silos of expertise, training graduate students in esoterica to perpetuate their own interests.But since only a tiny fraction of Harvard students pursue academic graduate degrees, Menand says, the academy is not serving its students very well.Menand believes—passionately—that, as he wrote in the final document summarizing the new goals and categories for curriculum reform, college is a time to "unsettle presumptions, to defamiliarize the familiar, to reveal what's going on beneath and behind appearances.
" Forcing kids to grapple head-on with the world view of a Christian or Muslim fundamentalist, say, would be a part of this unsettling.By floating the idea of a religion requirement, then, Menand and the other members of the committee were essentially saying that religion matters.It matters in the world, and it matters to our students.In their adult lives, Harvard grads will have jobs that take them to far-flung places, and they will live with people who are dramatically unlike themselves.They may live in a town where the school board is considering teaching creationism or the library is aiming to ban Harry Potter.
Just because the study of religion does not fit into the narrow categories the university has created for itself does not mean that students should not equip themselves—in a rational, secular context—with a vocabulary for thinking about it.Menand insists that Pinker's rhetorical assault did not kill the religion requirement.In the political climate of the time—this was just after Larry Summers's spectacular flameout as Harvard's president—it was crucial to get curriculum reform passed, and in the interest of efficiency the religion requirement was bartered away for a broader category.But Menand agrees that Pinker's vocal antipathy contributed to a campuswide concern that the religion debate at Harvard could become a media sideshow and detract from the goal."We dropped it because there was a ruckus," he says.
In retrospect, he says, "I wish we'd hung onto it a little bit longer." This year's freshmen, the class of 2013, are the first to benefit from the new General Education requirements that passed, finally, in 2007.During their tenure at Harvard, undergraduates now have to take one course in each of eight categories, including two in science and one in math.They have to take one course in a loose category called Culture and Belief, which includes religion courses but also classes in photography, mythology, and the literature of the quest.
A student, in other words, can graduate from Harvard without having to grapple directly with questions about a world in which people define themselves and their histories according to their views of God.Harvard students are increasingly "churchgoing, Bible-studying, and believing," says Jay Harris, the dean who administers the General Education program."We have a very strong evangelical community." The disinclination of the faculty to bring religion front and center puts teachers at risk of being radically out of step with their students.
Pierpaolo Barbieri, who sat on the Crimson editorial board at the time of the 2006 religion debate, agrees: "Growing up after 9/11, you need to fathom how other people think.With rationality, it would be very difficult to understand how someone could get on a plane and do that." Barbieri, who is now getting his master's in economics at Cambridge University, supported Reason and Faith in an editorial.On one of my visits to the Yard, I met a sophomore named Ryan Mahoney in a basement pub., and educated, as generations of Irish Catholics have been, by Jesuits who saw in him some promise, Mahoney was forthright about a despondent feeling he had, in class and among his friends: neither the Catholic theology that framed his thinking nor the religious community that gave him comfort were appropriate subjects for discussion.He once overheard students in the dorm making fun of his rosary."I do not think there would be any openness to discussing God in any of the classes I took last year," he said."But acknowledging the fact that religion exists and that it's not lunacy to believe in God would be helpful.
" To dismiss the importance of the study of faith—especially now—out of academic narrow-mindedness is less than unhelpful.